Local and State Resolutions

 

State Resolutions and Ballot Initiatives - Passed  |  State Breakdowns  |  Adding Resolutions

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State Resolutions and Ballot Initiatives - Passed



  • Oregon – July 2013

    • On July 4, 2013, the Oregon State Legislature passed HJM 6, a resolution introduced by State Senators Jackie Dingelder and Alan Bates and State Representative Michael Dembrow, respectfully urging "the Congress of the United States of America to propose and send to the states for ratification a constitutional amendment consistent with the findings of this memorial, clarifying the distinction between the rights of natural persons and the rights of corporations... [and] clarify that Congress and state legislatures may regulate moneys raised and spent for political purposes, including moneys raised by individuals, corporations and associations."


  • Delaware – June 2013

    • On June 10, 2013, the majority of the House and Senate of the Delaware General Assembly sent a letter to Delaware’s congressional delegation calling to overturn Citizens United and related cases, and stating that “the United States of America’s elections should not be permitted to go to the highest bidder.” The Delaware General Assembly expressed “we sharply disagree with the … decision” and call for a constitutional amendment “that makes clear the right of our elected representatives and the American people to be steadfast in pursuit of fair elections and democratic sovereignty.”


  • Illinois – May 2013

    • SJR 27, a joint resolution introduced by State Senators Heather Steans, Karen McConnaughay and Pamela J. Althoff on March 13, 2013, passed the Senate on May 14, 2013 and the House on May 31, 2013. The resolution calls “upon the United States Congress to propose and send to the states for ratification a constitutional amendment to overturn Citizens United v. FEC, SpeechNow.org v. FEC, Buckley v. Valeo, and other related cases that allow for unlimited election spending; and ... that such an amendment should make clear that the rights of persons protected by the Constitution are the rights of natural persons and not those of corporations or other artificial entities.”


  • Maine - April 2013

    • SP 548, a joint resolution introduced by State Senator Dick Woodybury, passed in the Senate and the House on April 30, 2013. The joint resolution declares Maine's support "for an amendment to the United States Constitution regarding campaign finance that would reaffirm the power of citizens through their government to regulate the raising and spending of money in elections."


  • West Virginia - April 2013

    • SR 24, introduced by Senator Herb Snyder, passed in the Senate on April 10, 2013. HR 9, introduced by Delegate Meshea Poore, passed in the House of Delegates on March 28, 2013. These companion resolutions call upon Congress to propose a constitutional amendment "to establish that corporations and unions are not entitled to the same rights and protections as natural persons under the Constitution" and that "such an amendment should assure the power of the federal, state and local governments to limit, regulate and require disclosure of sources of all money spent to influence elections."


  • Colorado - November 2012

    • On November 6, 2012, Amendment 65, a statewide balllot initiative, passed with 73.8% of the vote. Amendment 65 instructs Colorado's congressional delegation to propose and support "an amendment to the U.S. Constitution that allows congress and the states to limit campaign contributions and spending that allow all citizens, regardless of wealth, to express their views to one another on a level playing field."


  • Montana - November 2012

    • On November 6, 2012, Ballot Initiative 166, "Stand with Montanans", passed with 75% of the vote. Initiative 166 established "a state policy that corporations are not entitled to constitutional rights because they are not human beings, and charges Montana elected and appointed officials, state and federal, to implement that policy. With this policy, the people of Montana establish that there should be a level playing field in campaign spending, in part by prohibiting corporate campaign contributions and expenditures and by limiting political spending in elections. Further, Montana's congressional delegation is charged with proposing a joint resolution offering a constitutional amendment to establish that corporations are not human beings entitled to constitutional rights."


  • New Jersey - October 2012

    • SR 47, introduced by State Senator Jeff Van Drew, passed in the Senate on October 4, 2012. AR 86, introduced by State Representative Herb Conway, passed in the Assembly on October 18, 2012 by a roll call vote. The companion bills "expresses strong opposition to the United States Supreme Court ruling in Citizens United v. Federal Elections Commission and calls upon the Congress of the United States to propose a constitutional amendment to provide that with regard to corporation campaign spending, a person means only a natural person for First Amendment protection of free speech".


  • Connecticut - September 2012

    • On September 12, 2012, 88 state representatives and 22 state senators signed a letter calling for a constitutional amendment to overturn Citizens United. The effort to gather signatures was initiated by State Senator Gayle Slossberg.


  • Massachussetts - July 2012

    • On January 21, 2011, S772, introduced by State Senator Jamie Eldridge, passed the Senate on July 26, 2012, and the House on July 31, 2012. The resolution called for action to "restore the First Amendment and fair elections to the people."


  • California - July 2012

    • AJR 22, introduced on January 5, 2012 by Assemblymember Bob Weikowski, passed the State Assembly on March 20 and the State Senate on July 5. AJR 22 officially registered California's call for a constitutional amendment to "overturn Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission and to restore constitutional rights and fair elections to the people." 2014 update. On January 27, AJR 1 was pulled out of the inactive file. This resolution, which calls for a constitutional convention to propose an amendment limiting corporate personhood and declaring that money is not speech, passed the State Assembly on January 30 and the State Senate on June 23.


  • Rhode Island - May 2012

    • H7899 was introduced by Speaker of the House Gordon Fox and passed on May 8, 2012. S2656 was introduced by State Senate President Teresa Paiva-Weed and passed on May 24, 2012. Governor Lincoln Chafee signed the joint resolutions on May 30, 2012. The companion bills respectfully urge "the Congress of the United States to pass and send to the states for ratification a constitutional amendment to effectively overturn the holding of Citizens United and its progeny and to permit the governments of the United States and the several states to regulate and restrict independent political expenditures by corporations and wealthy individuals."


  • Maryland - April 2012

    • On January 19, 2012, State Senator Jamie Raskin introduced a letter to the Maryland General Assembly. The letter concluded with the following: "Article V of the United States Constitution empowers the people, the states and the Congress to use the constitutional amending process to protect republican self-government. This power has repeatedly been used by the people when the Supreme Court has undermined the progress of popular democracy. As Members of the Maryland General Assembly, we sharply disagree with the majority decision in Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission and call upon the United States Congress to propose and send to the states for ratification as soon as is practicable a constitutional amendment to reverse this decision and restore fair elections and democratic sovereignty to the states and to the people." The majority of members in the House of Delegates and State Senate signed the letter in agreement.


  • Vermont - April 2012

    • JRS 11, introduced January 21, 2011 by Senator Virginia Lyons (D-Chittendon), passed in the Senate on April 12, 2012 and passed in the House on April 19, 2012. On behalf of the Vermont Legislature, JRS 11 "expresses its disagreement with the holdings of the U.S. Supreme Court in Buckley and in Citizens United that money is speech" and "urges Congress to consider the request of many Vermont cities and towns to propose a constitutional amendment for the state's consideration that provides that money is not speech and corporations are not persons under the U.S. Constitution and that also affirms the constitutional rights of natural persons."


  • New Mexico - January 2012

    • HM 4, introduced by Representative Stewart, passed in a 38-29 vote in the House on January 30, 2012. SM 3, introduced by Senator Fischmann, passed in a 20-9 vote in the Senate on February 7, 2012. The companion bills "express strong opposition to the United States supreme court's decision in Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission and call upon the United States congress to propose and send to the states for ratification a constitutional amendment to restore republican democracy to the people of the United States."


  • Hawaii - April 2010

    • HCR 282, introduced on March 10, 2010 by Rep. Bob Herkes (D-5), passed the House on April 9, 2010 and the Senate on April 28, 2010. Through HCR 282, the State of Hawaii "respectfully requests that the U.S. Congress propose and send to the states for ratification a constitutional amendment to clarify the distinction between the rights of natural persons and the rights of corporations, thereby preserving the power of Congress and the States to place limits on the ability of corporations to influence the outcome of elections through political expenditures."



State Breakdowns



Alabama


  • State Resolutions
  • Local Resolutions - Passed

 

Alaska


  • State Resolutions

    • SJR 13, introduced by Senator Wielechowski on February 1, 2012, passed in the Senate on March 21, 2012 in a 12-7-1 vote, after which it was sent to the House Judiciary Committee. It urged Congress and the President to work toward passage of a constitutional amendment prohibiting corporations, unions and wealthy individuals from making unlimited election-related independent expenditures. The House Judiciary Committee did not take action before the session adjourned on April 15, 2012, however, and there was no carryover from 2012 to 2013.

    • HJR 33, introduced by Representative Gara and co-sponsored by Tuck, Holmes, Miller, Gardner, Kawaski, Kerttula, and Petersen on February 1, 2012, would have urged Congress and the President to work toward passage of a constitutional amendment prohibiting corporations, unions and wealthy individuals from making unlimited election-related independent expenditures. The House Judiciary Committee did not take action before the session adjourned on April 15, 2012, however, and there was no carryover from 2012 to 2013.

    • SJR 7, introduced by Senator Wielechoski and co-sponsored by Ellis and Gardner on January 28, 2013, would urge the US COngress and President to work towards amending the Constitution to prohibit corporations, unions, and individuals from making unlimited independent expenditures supporting or opposing candidates for public office. It was referred to the Labor & Commerce Committee on January 28, 2013.

    • HJR 8, introduced by Representative Gara and co-sponsored by Drummond, Tuck, Kerttula, Kawasaki, Kreiss-Tomkins on February 8, 2013, would urge the US Congress and President to amend the Constitution to prohibit corporations, unions, and other organizations from making unlimited independent expenditures supporting or opposing candidates for public office. HJR 8 was referred to State Affairs on February 15, 2013.

  • Local Resolutions - Passed

    • On July 10, 2012, the Sitka City and Borough Assembly passed a resolution condemning Citizens United and supporting a constitutional amendment to limit corporate influence and restore democracy in our elections.

 

American Samoa


  • Territorial Resolutions
  • Local Resolutions - Passed

 

Arizona


  • State Resolutions

    • HCR 2018, introduced by Representative McCune and co-sponsored by Davis, Campbell, Cardenas, Mendez, Peshlakai, Quezada, Wheeler, Alston, Contreras, Dalessandro, Escamilla, Gabaldon, Hernandez, Larkin, Otondo, and Saldate on January 30, 2013, proposed a ballot measure supporting the repeal by constitutional amendment of Citizens United. It was not taken up prior to the February 22, 2013 deadline for House consideration of House bills, and there was no carryover from 2013 to 2014.

    • SCR 1040, introduced by Senator Gallardo on January 31, 2012, proposed a ballot measure supporting the repeal by constitutional amendment of Citizens United. It was not taken up prior to session adjournment on June 22, 2012, and there was no carryover from 2012 to 2013.

    • HCR 2049, introduced by Representative McCune Davis on February 1, 2012, proposed a ballot measure supporting the repeal by constitutional amendment of the Citizens United decision. It was not taken up prior to session adjournment on June 22, 2012, and there was no carryover from 2012 to 2013.

    • HCR 2018, introduced by Representative McCune and co-sponsored by Davis, Campbell, Cardenas, Mendez, Peshlakai, Quezada, Wheeler, Alston, Contreras, Dalessandro, Escamilla, Gabaldón, Hernandez, Larkin, Otondo, Saldate on January 30, 2013, would declare the AZ legislature's support for a general election ballot allowing Arizona citizens to encourage Congressional introduction of a constitutional amendment reversing Citizens United. It was referred to the House FFR Committee on January 31.

  • Local Resolutions - Passed

    • On May 1, 2012, the Flagstaff City Council passed (see page 6, item 14C) a resolution calling for a constitutional amendment to affirm federal and state authority to regulate corporations and election contributions and expenditures, and to provide that corprations and similar entities are not people.

    • On June 12, 2012, the Tucson City Council passed (see item 9) a resolution calling for a constitutional amendment to abolish corporate personhood and reclaim our sovereign right to self-governance.

 

Arkansas


  • State Resolutions

  • Local Resolutions - Passed

    • On May 14, 2012, the Eureka Springs City Council passed (see page 5, item 1) a resolution calling for a constitutional amendment to abolish corporate personhood and the doctrine of money as speech, and to claim our sovereign right to self-governance. The Council also supported public education on the democratic threats posed by corporate personhood, and encouraged lively discussion toward responding to such threats.

    • On June 5, 2012, the Fayetteville City Council passed (pgs. 11-13) a resolution calling for a constitutional amendment to ensure that only human beings have constitutionally protected free speech rights, and to reject the notion that money is speech.

    • On August 13, 2012, the North Little Rock City Council passed (see page 6, item R-12-139) a resolution calling for a constitutional amendment to ensure that only human beings have constitutionally protected free speech rights, and to reject the notion that money is speech.

    • On October 1, 2012, the Pine Bluff City Council passed a resolution calling for a constitutional amendment to ensure that only human beings have constitutionally protected free speech rights, and to reject the notion that money is speech.

    • On January 22, 2013, the Conway City Council passed (pgs. 6-7) a resolution (page 37) calling for a constitutional amendment to provide that money is not speech, nor are corporations people, and to affirm the constitutional rights of natural persons.

 

California


  • State Resolutions

    • AJR 22, introduced on January 5, 2012 by Assemblymember Bob Weikowski, passed the State Assembly on March 20 and the State Senate on July 5. AJR 22 officially registered California's call for a constitutional amendment to "overturn Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission and to restore constitutional rights and fair elections to the people." 2014 update. On January 27, AJR 1 was pulled out of the inactive file. This resolution, which calls for a constitutional convention to propose an amendment limiting corporate personhood and declaring that money is not speech, passed the State Assembly on January 30 and the State Senate on June 23.

    • AB644, introduced on February 20, 2013 by Assemblyman Wieckowski, would formally submit an advisory question to voters asking whether California representatives should propose, support, and ratify a constitutional amendment reversing Citizens United. The second hearing, set to be held on April 23, 2013, was canceled at the request of the author.

  • Local Resolutions - Passed

    • On April 25, 2000, the municipality of Point Arena passed a resolution rejecting corporate personhood, which declared,"Interference in the democratic process by corporations frequently usurps the rights of citizens to govern."

    • On May 19, 2004, the City of Arcata passed Resolution No. 034-51, the Corporate Personhood Resolution, declaring corporate personhood illegitimate and undemocratic. It attempts to prevent corporations from challenging Arcata town laws that restrict corporations.

    • On March 28, 2011, the Fort Bragg (CA) City Council passed a resolution calling for a constitutional amendment to ban corporate personhood. All of the council members present voted for it; one member was absent.

    • On July 21, 2011, the South Robertson Neighborhoods Council passed (see page 3, motion GB072111-3, and page 6, vote 05) a resolution calling for a constitutional amendment to deny corporate personhood and state that money is not speech. The Council also moved in favor of (see page 3, motion GB072111-4, and page 6, vote 06) sending amendment support letters to elected officials. (See pgs. 1-4 for more information.)

    • On October 18, 2011, the Marina City Council passed a resolution calling for a constitutional amendment to establish that corporations should not be exempt from campaign finance restrictions, nor should they be considered natural persons, or for the inclusion of these principles in related constitutional amendments.

    • On December 20, 2011, the Oakland City Council passed a resolution opposing Citizens United and calling for a constitutional amendment to overturn it and limit corporate influence in our elections.

    • On January 9, 2012, the Petaluma City Council passed (see page 12, item C) a resolution positing that corporations do not enjoy the same constitutional rights as natural persons and, because money is not speech, political spending limits promote First Amendment goals, and calling for a constitutional amendment inclusive of both of those principles.

    • On January 11, 2012, the Fairfax Town Council passed (see pgs.7-8, "Adoption of Resolution No. 12-05") a resolution calling for a constitutional amendment to abolish corporate personhood and reclaim our sovereign right to self-governance. The Council also supported public education on the democratic threats posed by corporate personhood, and encouraged lively discussion toward responding to such threats.

    • On January 17, 2012, the West Hollywood City Council passed (page 8, item 2.O) a resolution calling for a constitutional amendment to abolish corporate personhood.

    • On January 24, 2012, the Santa Cruz City Council passed (see item 14) a resolution that, among several provisions, calls for approval of both a constitutional amendment to remedy the negative impacts of corporate political spending and a California disclosure bill, AB 1148.

    • On February 6, 2012, the Albany City Council passed (see pgs. 4-5, item 7-1) a resolution calling for a constitutional amendment to establish that money is not speech, nor are corporations natural persons entitled to constitutional rights.

    • On February 16, 2012, the Los Altos Hills City Council passed (see page 4, item 3, especially item 3H) a resolution calling for a constitutional amendment to abolish corporate personhood and reclaim our sovereign right to self-governance. The Council also supported public education on the democratic threats posed by corporate personhood, and encouraged lively discussion toward responding to such threats.

    • On February 21, 2012, the Davis City Council passed (see page 4, "Support of Assembly Joint Resolution No. 22") a resolution supporting California's AJR 22 and calling for the overturning of Citizens United by constitutional amendment.

    • On February 21, 2012, the Sebastopol City Council passed (pgs. 5-6) a resolution calling for a constitutional amendment to end corporate personhood and reaffirm that money does not equal speech.

    • On March 1, 2012, the City of Point Arena unanimously passed a resolution supporting their previous resolution in 2000, which called for the abolition of corporate personhood.

    • On March 6, 2012, the Berkely City Council passed a resolution to affirm its belief that the rights of persons are not similarly held by corporations and that corporate expenditures are not constitutionally protected speech. They also called for a constitutional amendment to reverse Citizens United and supported California's AJR 22 and the US Senate's S.J.Res. 33. This followed the April 27, 2010 passage of a resolution that called for a corporate personhood constitutional amendment and supported the US House's H.J.Res. 74. The April 2010 resolution mentioned previous action to similar effect.

    • On March 13, 2012, the Ojai City Council passed (see pgs. 6-7, item 8) a resolution calling for a constitutional amendment to abolish corporate personhood and reclaim our sovereign right to self-governance.

    • On March 14, 2012, the Nevada City Council passed a resolution (pgs. 1-2) positing that corporations do not enjoy the same constitutional rights as natural persons and, because money is not speech, political spending limits promote First Amendment goals, and calling for a constitutional amendment related to campaign finance reform the dismisses the notion of corporate constitutional rights.

    • On March 20, 2012, the Mountain View City Council passed (see page 5, item 8) a resolution calling for a constitutional amendment to abolish corporate personhood and reclaim our sovereign right to self-governance. The Council also supported public education on the democratic threats posed by corporate personhood, and encouraged lively discussion toward responding to such threats.

    • On March 20, 2012, the Sonoma County Board of Supervisors passed (see item 5) a resolution supporting S.J.Res. 33 in the US Congress, which proposes a constitutional amendment to abolish corporate personhood.

    • On March 27, 2012, the Santa Monica City Council unanimously passed a resolution calling for a constitutional amendment that protects the democratic process and our individual rights against the threats posed by Citizens United.

    • On April 9, 2012, the Malibu City Council passed (see page 25, item D) a resolution supporting a constitutional amendment or legislative actions to ensure that corporations are not endowed with constitutional rights, nor is money speech.

    • On April 17, 2012, the City Council of Chico passed a resolution calling on Congress to pass a constitutional amendment to overturn the Citizens United decision. The resolution provides that corporations should not have the constitutional right to spend money in elections, and that money should not be equated to speech.

    • On April 24, 2012, the Marin County Board of Supervisors passed a resolution supporting proposed and passed legislation nationwide, including California's AJR 22, calling for a constitutional amendment to overturn Citizens United and restore constitutional rights and fair elections to the people.

    • On April 24, 2012, the Thousand Oaks City Council passed (see page 4, item 9A) a resolution calling for a constitutional amendment to end corporate personhood.

    • On May 1, 2012, the Redlands City Council passed (pgs. 5-6) a resolution stating that corporations and natural persons are not entitled to the same constitutional rights, nor is money speech, and calling for a constitutional amendment inclusive of both of those principles. The resolution also pledged the city's future attention to municipal campaign finance reform. Substitute language was adopted (pgs. 5-6) after the original agenda (see page 4, item J2) was released.

    • On May 15, 2012, the Plumas County Board of Supervisors passed (see page 3, item 3) a resolution (pgs. 7-9) calling for a constitutional amendment to abolish corporate personhood and the doctrine of money as speech, and to claim our sovereign right to self-governance. The Board also supported public education concerning the democratic threats posed by corporate personhood.

    • On June 12, 2012, the Ventura County Board of Supervisors passed (see page 5, item 16) a resolution calling for legislation and a constitutional amendment to end corporate personhood by establishing that constitutional rights belong to human beings, to hold that money isn't speech, and to authorize the regulation of campaign contributions and expenditures.

    • On June 26, 2012, the Oxnard City Council passed (see pgs. 6-7, item N2) a resolution calling for a constitutional amendment to end corporate personhood.

    • On July 10, 2012, the Claremont City Council passed (see pgs. 12-14, item 15) a resolution calling for a constitutional amendment inclusive of these principles: "1. Only people are citizens corporations unions and other entities do not have the same rights as citizens to political speech; 2. Money is not speech and the right to spend money is not equivalent to the right of free speech; 3. The people as citizens working through their governments at every level have the right to regulate the amount of money that is contributed directly or indirectly to electoral campaigns by individuals corporations unions and all other organizations; and 4. The people as citizens have the right to require that all such contributions are publicly reported in a timely manner and are on the record to insure the transparency required for a democracy to function properly."

    • On August 7, 2012, the City Council of Campbell adopted a resolution declaring that corporations are not people and money is not free speech.

    • On August 8, 2012, the Coachella City Council passed (see page 3, item 9) a resolution positing that corporations should not have the constitutional rights of natural persons, expressing the need to address Citizens United by stopping unlimited independent expenditures by corporations, and calling for a constitutional amendment inclusive of these principles, including but not limited to S.J.Res. 29 and H.J.Res. 72 as introduced in the US Congress. The Council also called for a legal review of putting the question of corporate personhood before the citizens of Coachella. (We know of no such vote having taken place.)

    • On September 5, 2012, the Sonoma City Council passed (see page 5, item 8E) a resolution (pgs. 122-128) calling on the US Congress to support S.J.Res. 33, a constitutional amendment abolishing corporate personhood.

    • On September 24, 2012, the Mount Shasta City Council passed a resolution supporting a constitutional amendment to overturn Citizens United.

    • On November 6, 2012, the citizens of Richmond voted 73% to 27% in favor when asked (see page 2, item 5), "Should Richmond’s congressional representatives be instructed to propose, and Richmond’s state legislators instructed to ratify, an amendment to the United States Constitution to provide that corporations are not entitled to the Constitutional rights of real people, and that there should be limits on all spending in political campaigns, including ballot measures and "independent" expenditures”?"

    • On November 6, 2012, San Franciscans voted 81% to 19% in favor of Local Measure G, calling for a constitutional amendment and declaring that corporations are not natural persons, that Citizens United threatens democracy, and that corporate expenditures are not constitutionally-protected speech. This followed the January 31, 2012 passage of a resolution by the San Francisco Board of Supervisors that opposed Citizens United and called for a constitutional amendment to establish that corporations are not entitled to the same rights as natural persons.

    • On November 6, 2012, Mendocino County voters approved Measure F, "An Advisory Measure to End Corporate Rule and Defend Democracy," which instructed the county elected officials to enact resolutions calling for a Constitutional amendment to establish that only human beings are endowed with constitutional rights, and that money is not speech. County elected officials are not bound by the results of Measure F.

    • On November 7, 2012, the Pacific Grove City Council passed (see page 3, item 7C, and page 4, item 12-7C) a resolution calling for a constitutional amendment to abolish corporate personhood and the doctrine of money as speech, and to claim our sovereign right to self-governance. The Council also supported public education on the democratic threats posed by corporate personhood, and encouraged lively discussion toward responding to such threats.

    • On November 20, 2012, the Napa City Council passed (see pgs. 3-4, item 15.B) a resolution opposing corporate personhood and supporting a constitutional amendment to overturn Citizens United.

    • On December 4, 2012, the San Diego City Council passed (see "ITEM-S508") a resolution disagreeing with Citizens United and calling for a constitutional amendment to provide that corporations do not possess the entirety of rights of natural persons and thus corporate election expenditures are not constitutionally protected speech.

    • On May 7, 2013, the San Jose City Council passed a resolution calling for a “constitutional amendment, declaring that the expenditure of money in campaigns is not protected “speech” for First Amendment purposes, and that campaign contributions and expenditures may be limited and regulated by Congress, States and by implication, local governments.”

    • On May 21, 2013, Angelenos voted 77% to 23% in favor of (see page 2) Proposition C, calling for a constitutional amendment to overturn all portions of Buckley and Citizens United that conflict with these objectives: "(1) Corporations do not have the constitutional rights of human beings; and (2) Corporations do not engage in constitutionally protected speech when spending corporate money to influence the electoral process; and (3) limits on political spending that promote the goals of the First Amendment, by ensuring that all citizens - regardless of wealth - have an opportunity to have their political views heard are permissable." This followed the December 6, 2011 passage of (see pgs. 14-15, item 17) a resolution (see especially "File Activities, 12/21/2011") by the Los Angeles City Council supporting legislative actions, including a constitutional amendment, ensuring that corporations are not entitled to the entirety of rights of human beings, specifically so that corporate election spending is no longer a form of constitutionally protected speech.

    • On August 6, 2013, the Chula Vista City Council passed a resolution calling for a constitutional amendment to provide that only natural persons have the ability to make contributions and expenditures to influence elections, and that such ability is no longer a form of constitutionally protected speech for corporations.

    • On October, 14 2013, the Upland City Council passed (see pgs. 7-8, item 13B) a resolution calling for a constitutional amendment to reverse Citizens United and enable the people to regulate campaign contributions and expenditures in all elections.

    • On March 12, 2014, the Encinitas City Council passed a resolution (see also "Agenda Report," pgs. 3-4, item C, and pgs. 9-11) disagreeing with Citizens United and calling for a constitutional amendment to provide that corporations are not entitled to the rights of natural persons, specifically so that corporate election spending is no longer a form of constitutionally protected speech.

 

Colorado


  • State Resolutions

    • On November 6, 2012, Amendment 65, a statewide balllot initiative, passed with 73.8% of the vote. Amendment 65 instructs Colorado's congressional delegation to propose and support "an amendment to the U.S. Constitution that allows congress and the states to limit campaign contributions and spending that allow all citizens, regardless of wealth, to express their views to one another on a level playing field."

  • Local Resolutions - Passed

    • On September 12, 2011, the Jamestown Board of Trustees unanimously passed a resolution calling for a constitutional amendment to establish that only human beings, not corporations, are entitled to constitutional rights and that the First Amendment does not protect unlimited political spending as free speech.

    • On November 1, 2011, the citizens of Boulder voted 74% to 26% in favor when asked (see page 5, Ballot Question No. 2H), "Shall the People of the City of Boulder, Colorado, call for reclaiming democracy from the corrupting effects of corporate influence by amending the United States Constitution to establish that: 1) Only human beings, not corporations, are entitled to constitutional rights; and 2) Money is not speech, and therefore regulating political contributions and spending is not equivalent to limiting political speech."

    • On January 3, 2012, the Commissioners of Pueblo County unanimously passed a resolution in favor of overturning the Citizens United decision, and calling for the end of corporate personhood

    • On April 3, 2012, the Telluride Town Council passed a resolution calling for a constitutional amendment to establish that neither corporations nor other legal entities are entitled to constitutional rights and protections, nor is money speech.

    • On April 17, 2012, Archuleta County Colorado Board of County Commissioners passed a resolution condemning corporation and union money in politics.

    • On October 2, 2012, the Fort Collins City Council passed (see pgs. 60-63, "Resolution 2012-092") a resolution calling for a constitutional amendment to state that corporations are not entitled to constitutional rights, nor is money speech.

    • On November 6, 2012, voters in Pueblo, CO supported, with 65% of the vote, a Reclaim Our Rights initiative urging Pueblo's congressional representatives to support and its state legislators to ratify a constitutional amendment to establish that constitutional rights belong to natural human beings and not legal entities like corporations; and money is not speech.

 

Connecticut


  • State Resolutions

    • On September 12, 2012, 88 state representatives and 22 state senators signed a letter calling for a constitutional amendment to overturn Citizens United. The effort to gather signatures was initiated by State Senator Gayle Slossberg.

    • SB00005, introduced on January 9, 2013 by Senator Williams, would require increased disclosure by corporations expending money to support or oppose political candidates. It was recommitted to the Joint Committee on Government Administration and Elections on June 4, 2013.

    • HJ 3, introduced on January 10, 2013, by Representative Hennessy, with favorable approval from the Government Administration and Elections Committee, would memorialize Congress to propose a constitutional amendment "provid[ing] that free speech rights of natural persons not be attributed to corporations."

  • Local Resolutions - Passed

    • On May 14, 2012, the Hartford Court of Common Council passed (see page 2, item 18) a resolution (pgs. 10-11) calling for a constitutional amendment and other legislative actions to overturn Buckley and Citizens United, which together established the prinicples money is speech and corporations are people.

    • On June 4, 2012, the New London City Council passed a resolution (see page 8, item 7.3-B) calling for a constitutional amendment to provide that corporations are not entitled to the rights of natural persons, specifically so that corporate election spending is no longer a form of constitutionally protected speech.

    • On June 4, 2012, the Middletown Court of Common Council passed a resolution (see pgs. 6-7, item 11) joining efforts to remove the overt influence of money in politics and standing with those who support public financing, cutting the time it takes to select candidates and conduct elections, and making political spending open and transparent. The Common Council instructed Hartford's state and federal representatives to advance these principles by enacting resolutions, legislation, and constitutional amendments.

    • On June 4, 2012, the New Haven Board of Aldermen passed a resolution calling for a constitutional amendment to provide that corporations do not possess the entirety of rights of natural persons. The Board also encouraged public discussion on the role of corporations in public life.

    • On June 11, 2012, the Ashford Board of Selectmen passed (see page 1, item 7c) a resolution calling for a constitutional amendment to nullify Citizens United.

    • On June 11, 2012, the West Haven City Council passed (see "Update") a resolution calling for a constitutional amendment to clarify that corporations are not entitled to the constitutional rights of natural persons, nor is money speech.

    • On July 9, 2012, the Stamford Board of Representatives passed a resolution calling for a constitutional amendment and other legislative actions to overturn Supreme Court decisions that have established corporate personhood and the doctrine of money as speech, such as Buckley and Citizens United. (See also pgs. 11-13, item 1 and file summary.)

    • On October 16, 2012, the Windham Town Council passed a resolution (see page 6) calling for a constitutional amendment to provide that constitutional rights belong to natural persons, and that election spending by corporations and other artificial entities is not constitutionally protected speech. The Council also called for other action within the power of the US Congress to overturn Citizens United.

 

Delaware


  • State Resolutions

    • On June 10, 2013, the majority of the House and Senate of the Delaware General Assembly sent a letter to Delaware’s congressional delegation calling to overturn Citizens United and related cases, and stating that “the United States of America’s elections should not be permitted to go to the highest bidder.” The Delaware General Assembly expressed “we sharply disagree with the … decision” and call for a constitutional amendment “that makes clear the right of our elected representatives and the American people to be steadfast in pursuit of fair elections and democratic sovereignty.”

  • Local Resolutions - Passed

 

District of Columbia


  • District Resolutions - Passed

    • On February 5, 2013, the DC City Council voted unanimously on a resolution to call upon the US Congress to propose and to call on the states for ratification a constitutional amendment to overturn Citizens United and restore constitutional rights and fair elections to the people.

 

Florida


  • State Resolutions

    • The People's Rights Amendment (SM 1576), introduced by Senator Braynon on January 5, 2012, urged Congress to pass a constitutional amendment tooverturn the Citizens United decision. No action was taken in the Senate Rules Committee before the session adjourned on March 9, 2012. No carryover from 2012 to 2013.

    • The People's Rights Amendment (HM 1275), introduced by Representative Williams on January 5 2012, urged Congress to pass a constitutional amendment to overturn the Citizens United decision. No action was taken in the House State Affairs Committee before the session adjourned on March 9, 2012. No carryover from 2012 to 2013.
  • Local Resolutions - Passed

    • On October 4, 2011, the South Miami City Commission passed a resolution calling for a constitutional amendment to end corporate personhood.

    • On November 16, 2011, the Cutler Bay Town Council passed a resolution calling for a constitutional amendment to define "person" as a human being and reclaim our sovereign right to self-governance. The Council also supported public education on the democratic threats posed by corporate constitutional rights, and encouraged lively discussion toward responding to such threats.

    • On March 15, 2012, the Tampa City Council passed a resolution calling for a constitutional amendment to provide that corporations are not entitled to the entirety of rights of natural persons, specifically so that corporate election spending is no longer a form of constitutionally protected speech.

    • On March 20, 2012, the Key West City Commission passed a resolution calling for a constitutional amendment to abolish corporate personhood and the doctrine of money as speech, and to claim our sovereign right to self-governance. The Commission also supported public education concerning the democratic threats posed by corporate personhood, and encouraged lively discussion toward responding to such threats.

    • On January 3, 2013, the Gainesville City Commission passed a resolution calling for a constitutional amendment to establish that corporations are not endowed with constitutional rights, nor is money speech. The Commission also called for putting this question before the citizens of Alachua County. (We know of no such vote having taken place.)

    • On January 15, 2013, the Lake Worth City Commission passed (see pgs. 3-4, item 9) a resolution (pgs. 44-46) calling for a constitutional amendment to overturn Citizens United, in addition to other corrective legislation.

    • On August 13, 2013, the Sarasota County Council of Neighborhood Associations passed a resolution calling for a constitutional amendment stating that money is not speech and corporations are not people.

 

Georgia


  • State Resolutions

    • HR 1377, introduced on February 15, 2012 by State Representative Stephanie Benfield, opposed Citizens United and requested a constitutional amendment "to restore republican democracy to the people of the United States." No action was taken in the House Government Affairs Committee before the session adjourned on April 11, 2012. No carryover from 2012 to 2013.

    • GA SR410, introduced on February 28, 2013 by Senators Orrock, Henson, Davenport, Jackson, and Fort, and co-sponored by Jones, is a resolution requesting a constitutional amendment to restrict unlimited independent corporate expenditures for political purposes.

  • Local Resolutions - Passed

    • On March 21, 2013, the Savannah City Council passed a resolution (pgs. 9-11) supporting legislative actions, including a constitutional amendment, ensuring that corporations are not entitled to the entirety of rights of human beings, specifically so that corporate election spending is no longer a form of constitutionally protected speech.

 

Guam


  • Territorial Resolutions
  • Local Resolutions - Passed

 

Hawaii


  • State Resolutions

    • HCR 282, introduced on March 10, 2010 by Rep. Bob Herkes (D-5), passed the House on April 9, 2010 and the Senate on April 28, 2010. Through HCR 282, the State of Hawaii "respectfully requests that the U.S. Congress propose and send to the states for ratification a constitutional amendment to clarify the distinction between the rights of natural persons and the rights of corporations, thereby preserving the power of Congress and the States to place limits on the ability of corporations to influence the outcome of elections through political expenditures."

    • SR 68, introduced on March 14, 2012 by Sen. Josh Green (D-3) et al, and passed by the Senate on April 12, 2012, urged Congress to pass a constitutional amendment to address campaign spending issues raised by the Citizens United ruling. No direct House companion was passed during the same session. No carryover from 2012 to 2013.

    • HR 5, introduced on January 19, 2012 by Rep. Gilbert S.C. Keith-Agaran (D-9), and passed by the House on April 13, 2012, urged Congress to pass a constitutional amendment to provide that corporations are not entitled to constitutional rights and that the Constitution only grants rights to natural persons. No direct Senate companion was passed during the same session. No carryover from 2012 to 2013.

    • HR 44, a house measure, passed in the House on April 14, 2011. The bill was introduced by Rep. Roy Takumi (D-36). Proposes that the United States Congress pass a constitutional amendment that provides that corporations are not persons under the laws of the U.S. or any of its jurisdictional subdivisions.

    • HCR 51, a joint measure, was introduced on February 11, 2011 by Rep. Roy Takumi (D-36), proposing that the United States Congress pass a constitutional amendment that provides that corporations are not persons under the laws of the U.S. or any of its jurisdictional subdivisions

    • HB36, introduced on January 20, 2011 by Rep. Karl Rhoads (D-28), proposes a state constitutional amendment to provide that freedom of speech applies only to natural persons

    • HR204, introduced on March 10, 2010, by Rep. Bob Herkes (D-5), expressed disagreement with the Citizens United ruling and called on the US Congress to pass a constitutional amendment barring the use of "person" when defining "corporate entity." No action was taken in the Judiciary Committee before the session adjourned on April 29, 2010. No carryover from 2010 to 2011.

    • SCR225, introduced on March 10, 2010 by Senator Gary L. Hooser (D-7), expressed disagreement with the Citizens United ruling and called on the US Congress to pass a constitutional amendment barring the use of "person" when defining "corporate entity." No action was taken in committee before the session adjourned on April 29, 2010. No carryover from 2010 to 2011.

    • SR116, introduced on March 10, 2010 by Senator Gary L. Hooser (D-7), expressed disagreement with the Citizens United ruling and called on the US Congress to pass a constitutional amendment barring the use of "person" when defining "corporate entity." No action was taken in committee. before the session adjourned on April 29, 2010. No carryover from 2010 to 2011.

    • HCR 10, introduced on January 22, 2013 by Representative Takayama, with co-sponsorship by Choy, Coffman, Har, Ichiyama, Kawakami, Oshiro, and Say, calls for a constitutional amendment to overturn Citizens United. It was referred to JDL on April 4, 22.

  • Local Resolutions - Passed

    • On September 12, 2012, the Council of the City and County of Honolulu passed (see pgs. 14-15, "RESOLUTION 12-207, CD1") a resolution positing that corporations should not receive the same constitutional rights as natural persons, and because money is not speech, political spending limits promote First Amendment goals by ensuring that all citizens' voices are heard. The Council also called for a constitutional amendment inclusive of those principles, and supported related citizen advocacy for a constitutional amendment.

 

Idaho


  • State Resolutions

    • HJM012, introduced on February 24, 2010 by Representative Brian Cronin, expressed disagreement with the Citizens United ruling and called on Congress to take action through legislation or a constitutional amendment. No action in the House State Affairs Committee was taken before the session adjourned on March 29, 2010. No carryover from 2010 to 2011.

  • Local Resolutions - Passed

    • August 13, 2012, the Teton County commissioners passed a resolution calling for a constitutional amendment to overturn Citizens United declare that 1) corporations are not endowed with constituional rights 2) contributions and expenditures for political spending is not constitutionally protected speech and 3) Congress and the States shall have the power regulate campaign spending.

 

Illinois


  • State Resolutions

    • SR 85, introduced on February 13, 2013 by Senators Heather Stearns and Daniel Biss, urged the reversal of Citizens United and related cases by a constitutional amendment clarifying that corporations are not people and money is not speech. It was not considered in committee prior to the March 22, 2013 committee deadline.

    • SJR 27, a joint resolution introduced by State Senators Heather Steans, Karen McConnaughay and Pamela J. Althoff on March 13, 2013, passed the Senate on May 14, 2013 and the House on May 31, 2013. The resolution calls “upon the United States Congress to propose and send to the states for ratification a constitutional amendment to overturn Citizens United v. FEC, SpeechNow.org v. FEC, Buckley v. Valeo, and other related cases that allow for unlimited election spending; and ... that such an amendment should make clear that the rights of persons protected by the Constitution are the rights of natural persons and not those of corporations or other artificial entities.”

  • Local Resolutions - Passed

    • On May 5, 2012, the Town of Warren passed a resolution calling for an end to corporate personhood

    • On May 14, 2012, the Evanston City Council passed (see page 9, item O2) a resolution supporting the effective overturning of Citizens United and calling for a constitutional amendment to permit state and federal governments to regulate electoral expenditures by corporations and special interest groups.

    • On June 4, 2012, the Galesburg City Council passed (see pgs. 3-4, item 12-2023) a resolution (pgs. 123-125) calling for a constitutional amendment and other legislative actions to ensure that corporations are not endowed with constitutional rights, nor is money speech.

    • On November 6, 2012, Chicagoans voted 74% to 26% in favor (see "Political Contributions") when asked, "Shall the U.S. Congress pass a bill, to be duly ratified by three-fourths of the states, adopting an amendment to the U.S. Constitution, empowering the federal government and the states to regulate and limit political contributions from corporations?" (page 23) This followed the July 25, 2012 passage of a resolution by the Chicago City Council disagreeing with Citizens United and calling for a constitutional amendment to overturn it.

    • On November 6, 2012, 75 percent of voters in Avon Township approved the question "Should the United States Constitution be amended to limit the use of corporate, special interest, and private money in any political activity, including influencing the election of any candidate for public office?"

    • On November 6, 2012, 75 percent of voters in Northfield Township approved the question "Should the United States Constitution be amended to limit the use of corporate, special interest, and private money in any political activity, including influencing the election of any candidate for public office?"

    • On November 6, 2012, voters in Oak Park approved, with 85 percent of the vote, an initiative requesting their local, state, and federal representatives to enact resolutions and legislation to establish that money is not speech and that constitutional rights are primarily intended for human beings and not corporations.

    • On November 6, 2012, voters in Champaign supported, with 72 percent of the vote, an advisory non binding question calling on their city, state, and federal representatives to enact resolutions and legislation to advance a constitutional amendment declaring that money is not speech and corporations do not have the same rights as actual people.

    • On November 6, 2012, voters in Cunningham Township supported, with 72 percent of the vote, an advisory non-binding question supporting a constitutional amendment declaring that money is not speech and corporations do not have the same rights as actual people, and calling on their elected representatives to advance this goal.

    • On November 6, 2012, voters in Lisle Township approved, by 63 percent, the question, "Should the United States Constitution be amended to clearly state that only individual persons, and not corporations, associations, or any other organizational entities, are entitled to the rights enumerated in the Constitution?"

    • One November 6, 2012, voters in Warrenville approved, by 65 percent, the question, "Should the United States Constitution be amended to clearly state that only individual persons, and not corporations, associations, or any other organizational entities, are entitled to the rights enumerated in the Constitution?

    • On November 6, 2012, Seventy-three percent of Kane County voters approved the question "Should the United States Constitution be amended to limit the use of corporate, special interest, and private money in any political activity, including influencing the election of any candidate for public office?"

    • On November 6, 2012, Sixty-eight percent of voters in Carbondale approved a Move to Amend Resolution stating that money is not speech and can thus be regulated, and corporations do not have constitutional rights.

 

Indiana


  • State Resolutions

  • Local Resolutions - Passed

    • On June 20, 2012, the Bloomington City Council passed (see pgs. 2-4, "Resolution 12-09") a resolution calling for a constitutional amendment to establish that corporations are not people, nor is money speech, and federal and state governments shall have the authority to regulate political expenditures and contributions.

 

Iowa


  • State Resolutions

    • SR 113, introduced by State Senator Jeff Danielson, passed in the Senate by a 7-4 vote on March 12, 2012. The resolution expresses disagreement with the current interpretation of corporate rights and Citizens United, and calls for Congress to enact appropriate legislation to regulate and restrict corporate spending in elections.

  • Local Resolutions - Passed

    • On February 3rd, 2014, the City Council of Dubuque passed a resolution that the "position of the Dubuque City Council that corporations should not receive the same constitutional rights as natural persons do and that because money is not speech, limits on political spending will promote the goals of the First Amendment by ensuring that all citizens, regardless of wealth, have an opportunity to have their political views heard."

    • On February 3rd, 2014, the City of Buffalo voted on a resolution urging Congress to pass a constitutional amendment to overturn Citizens United.

 

Kansas


  • State Resolutions

    • SCR 1617, introduced on March 8, 2012 by State Senators Holland, Faust-Goudeau, Francisco, Haley, Hensley and Steineger, opposed Citizens United and requested a constitutional amendment to repeal corporate personhood. No action was taken in the Committee on Ethics and Elections before the session adjourned May 25, 2012. No carryover from 2012 to 2013.

    • SCR1607, introduced on January 28, 2013 by Senator Holland, and co-sponsored by Faust-Goudeau, Francisco, Hale, Hawk, Hensley, Kelly, and Pettey, would urge Congress to amend the constitution to overturn Citizens United. It was referred to the Committee on Ethics, Elections, and Local Government on January 29.

  • Local Resolutions - Passed

 

Kentucky



  • State Resolutions

    • HR 14, introduced by Representative Rollins on January 4, 2011, urged Congress to propose a constitutional amendment to prevent corporate control of elections. No action was taken in the House Elections, Constitutional Amendments & Intergovernmental Affairs Committee before the session adjourned on March 9, 2011. No carryover from 2011 to 2012.

    • HCR 6, introduced on January 8, 2013 by Representative Marzian, urged Congress to propose a constitutional amendment to establish reasonable contribution and expenditure limits for cmapaigns and to prohibit nocitizen contributions and expenditures. It was reported favorably by the House Elections, Constitutional Amendments & Intergovernmental Affairs Committee but did not receive a floor vote prior to session adjournment on March 21, 2013. No carryover from 2013 to 2014.

  • Local Resolutions - Passed

 

Louisiana


  • State Resolutions
  • Local Resolutions - Passed

 

Maine


  • State Resolutions

    • SP 548, a joint resolution introduced by State Senator Dick Woodybury passed in the Senate and the House on April 30, 2013. The joint resolution declares Maine's support "for an amendment to the United States Constitution regarding campaign finance that would reaffirm the power of citizens through their government to regulate the raising and spending of money in elections."

    • HP1107, introduced on May 15, 2013, by Representatives Chapman and Gratwick, called for a joint resolution supporting a constitutional amendment to overturn Citizens United. It has been marked as "Unfinished Business" as of June 7, 2013.

  • Local Resolutions - Passed

    • On June 14, 2010, the Town of Monroe passed a resolution denouncing Citizens United and calling for a constitutional amendment.

    • On January 18, 2012, the Portland City Council passed (see page 3, "Resolve 11-11/12") a resolution calling for a constitutional amendment to abolish corporate personhood. (Click here for more information.)

    • On February 21, 2012, the Waterville City Council passed (see page 2, "RESOLUTION 29-2012") a resolution calling for a constitutional amendment to state that corporations are not human beings.

    • On February 26, 2012, the Town of Great Pond passed a resolution supporting a constitutional amendment to overturn the Citizens United decision.

    • On March 10, 2012, the Vienna Town Meeting passed (see page 1, "Results") a resolution (page 7) calling for a constitutional amendment to abolish corporate personhood.

    • On March 26, 2012, the Bangor City Council passed in a 5-3 vote a resolution calling for a constitutional amendment to overturn the Citizens United decision and stating that corporations are not entitled to the same rights of natural persons.

    • On April 11, 2012, the Fairfield City Council unanimously passed a resolution calling for a constitutional amendment to overturn the Citizens United decision and stating that corporations are not entitled to the same rights of natural persons.

    • On May 14, 2012, the City Council of Winslow passed a resolution supporting a constitutional amendment to clarify that money is not speech and corporations are not persons.

    • On May 15, 2012, the Bar Harbor City Council considered (see pgs. 37-39) and passed a resolution (see page 3, item 7C) calling for a constitutional amendment to establish that corporations are not entiteld to the constitutional rights of natural persons, nor is money speech.

    • On June 2, 2012, the attendees of the Town Meeting of Leeds passed a Town Warrant to call for a constitutional amendment to overturn Citizens United.

    • On June 4, 2012, the Town of Mount Desert passed an article denouncing Citizens United and calling for a constitutional amendment.

    • On June 5, 2012, the Freeport Town Council passed a resolution (see pgs. 10-12, "ITEM #99-12") calling for a constitutional amendment to provide that money is not speech, nor are corporations people. (Click here for more information.)

    • On June 11, 2012, the Town of Vassalboro passed a resolution denouncing Citizens United and calling for a constitutional amendment.

    • On June 13, 2012, the Arrowsic Town Meeting declared (see page 9, "Art. 45"): "We, the residents of Arrowsic, Maine, reject the U.S Supreme Court’s "Citizens United" ruling, and move to amend our Constitution to firmly establish that money is not speech, and that human beings, not corporations, are persons entitled to Constitutional rights."

    • On June, 18, 2012, the Newcastle Town Meeting passed a resolution (page 28) calling for a constitutional amendment to establish that corporations do not hold constitutional rights, nor is money speech.

    • On June 26, 2012, Southwest Harbor Board of Selectmen passed a resolution denouncing the Citizens United ruling and calling for a constitutional amendment.

    • In June of 2012, the City of Shapleigh passed a resolution denouncing the Citizens United deicision and calling for a constitutional amendment.

    • In June of 2012, the Bethel Board of Selectmen passed a resolution denouncing Citizens United and calling for a constitutional amendment.

    • In June of 2012, the Town of Liberty passed a resolution denouncing Citizens United and calling for a constitutional amendment.

    • On September 4, 2012, the Lewiston City Council passed a resolution (see pgs. 7-8, "RESOLVE SUPPORTING") calling for a constitutional amendment that would differentiate elections spending and First Amendment activities, empower state and federal governments to regulate election fundraising and spending, and clarify that only human beings are endowed with constitutional free speech rights.

    • On November 7, 2012, the Scarborough Town Council passed a resolution (see pgs. 1-3, "Resolution 12-07") calling for a constitutional amendment to state that corporations are not human beings and do not have the same rights as citizens.

    • On January 8, 2013, the Camden Select Board supported (see pgs. 3-4, item H1) a constitutional amendment to state that money is not speech, nor are corporations people, thus overturning Citizens United.

    • On January 28, 2013, the Thomaston Select Board passed (see pgs. 2-3, item 9B) a resolution calling for a constitutional amendment to reverse rulings equating corporations with people and money with speech, and for immediate legislation to establish rules of disclosure and public financing of elections.

    • On February 4, 2013, the Brunswick Town Council passed (see pgs. 4-5, item 13) a resolution (see pgs. 24-26) calling for a constitutional amendment to provide that corporations are not entitled to the entirety of rights of natural persons, specifically so that corporate election spending is not a form of constitutionally protected speech.

    • On February 11, 2013, the Orono Town Council passed (see page 2, "Order 13-27") a resolution calling for a constitutional amendment to empower federal and state governments to regulate and limit election fundraising and spending, clarify the role corporations in the political process, clarify the same for unions and other special interest groups, and provideregulatory and limiting authority over political participation by such entities. (Click here for more information.)

    • On March 6, 2013, the Bath City Council passed (see pgs. 3-4, item E6) a resolution supporting Bath citizens who reject Citizens United and calling for a constitutional amendment to establish that money is not free speech, nor are legal entities like corporations people entitled to constitutional rights.

    • On March 19, 2013, the City of Friendship unanimously passed a resolution directing the Maine Legislature and Maine's Congressional delegation to call upon Congress to pass a constitutional amendment for the purpose of overturning the Citizens United ruling handed down on January 21, 2010. The purpose of this amendment is to limit the influence and to control the political spending by corporations and unions in our elections.

    • On April 6, 2013, the city of Brooklin passed a resolution to support the creation of a constitutional amendment to effectively limit the influence of “big money” in elections.

 

Maryland


  • State Resolutions

    • On January 19, 2012, State Senator Jamie Raskin introduced a letter to the Maryland General Assembly. The letter concluded with the following: "Article V of the United States Constitution empowers the people, the states and the Congress to use the constitutional amending process to protect republican self-government. This power has repeatedly been used by the people when the Supreme Court has undermined the progress of popular democracy. As Members of the Maryland General Assembly, we sharply disagree with the majority decision in Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission and call upon the United States Congress to propose and send to the states for ratification as soon as is practicable a constitutional amendment to reverse this decision and restore fair elections and democratic sovereignty to the states and to the people." The majority of members in the House of Delegates and State Senate signed the letter in agreement.

  • Local Resolutions - Passed


    • On January 23, 2012, the Greenbelt City Council passed a resolution supporting the Maryland General Assembly Letter to Congress calling for a constitutional amendment to overturn Citizens United.

    • On January 24, 2012, the College Park City Council passed a resolution supporting a National General Assembly Letter to Congress calling for a constitutional amendment to overturn Citizens United and to clarify that corporations are not people protected by the First Amendment.

    • On February 21, 2012, the Prince George's County Council passed a resolution supporting the letter signed by members of the Maryland General Assembly that disagreed with Citizens United and called for a constitutional amendment to reverse the decision and restore fair elections and democratic sovereignty to the states and to the people.

    • On March 6, 2012, the Mount Rainier City Council passed a resolution establishing that campaign financing and spending should be structured to prevent undue influence, and that corporations should not have the same constitutional rights as people. The Council then instructed state and federal representatives to advance these principles through resolutions, legislations, and constitutional amendment.

    • On May 14, 2012, the Baltimore City Council passed a resolution opposing Citizens United and calling for a constitutional amendment to overturn the deicison and remove corporate money from the electoral process. (See pgs. 5-6, "Bill No. 12-0051R" for more information.)

    • On August 29, 2012, the Annapolis City Council passed a resolution calling for a constitutional amendment to overturn Citizens United.

 

Massachusetts


  • State Resolutions

    • On January 21, 2011, S772, introduced by State Senator Jamie Eldridge, passed the Senate on July 26, 2012, and the House on July 31, 2012. The resolution called for action to "restore the First Amendment and fair elections to the people."

    • On November 6, 2012, voters in almost half of Massachusetts towns and cities with a 78% margin of victory supported local measures that instruct their state senator or legislator to support a constitutional amendment affirming that corporations are not entitled to the constitutional rights of human beings; and both Congress and the states may place limits on political contributions and political spending.

  • Local Resolutions - Passed

    • On April 4, 2011, the Provincetown Town Meeting passed a resolution (see pgs. 33-34, "Article 33") calling for a constitutional amendment to restore the First Amendment and fair elections to the people.

    • On April 4, 2011, the Yarmouth City Council passed a resolution supporting overturning Citizens United.

    • On April 24, 2011, the Town of Leverett passed Move to Amend's model resolution at a townhall meeting.

    • On April 26, 2011, the Town of Truro passed a resolution calling on the United States Congress to pass and send to the states for ratification a constitutional amendment to restore the First Amendment and fair elections to the people, and calling on the Massachussets legislature to pass one more similar resolutions.

    • On April 26, 2011, the Town of Wellfleet passed a resolution calling on the United States Congress to pass and send to the states for ratification a constitutional amendment to restore the First Amendment and fair elections to the people.

    • On May 1, 2011, Lanesborough citizens passed a resolution that supports the overturning of Citizens United, stating that the Supreme Court's findings were wrong and clarifying that corporations are not people.

    • On May 2, 2011, the Town of Great Barrington passed a resolution calling upon the United States Congress to pass and send to the states for ratification a constitutional amendment that Congress and the states will regulate the use of funds for political speech by any corporate entity.

    • On May 3, 2011, the Brewster Town Meeting passed a resolution (see page 25, "ARTICLE NO. 35") calling for a constitutional amendment to restore the First Amendment and fair elections to the people. (See pgs. 66-67, "ARTICLE NO. 35" for more information.)

    • On May 3, 2011, the Town of Dennis passed a resolution calling on Massachusetts legislators and the state's delegation to the US Congress to work for ratification of this constitutional amendment: "Corporations, political action committees (PACs), and foreign agents are not citizens under the U.S. Constitution and shall not be allowed to financially influence elections."

    • On May 9, 2011, the Orleans Town Meeting passed a resolution (see page 41, "Article 34") calling for a constitutional amendment to restore the First Amendment and fair elections to the people.

    • On May 9, 2011, the Chatham Town Meeting voted in favor of (see page 99, "Article 22") calling for a constitutional amendment to allow federal and state governments to ban or reasonably limit corporate election spending.

    • On May 17, 2011, the Williamstown Town Meeting passed a resolution (page 22) calling for a constitutional amendment to restore the First Amendment and fair elections to the people.

    • On October 13, 2011, the Somerville Board of Aldermen passed a resolution calling for a consitutional amendment to reverse Citizens United and restore constitutional rights and fair elections to the people. The Board also registered its official support for Senate Docket 01488 (S772), the state's call for a constitutional amendment.

    • On October 24, 2011, the Cambridge City Council passed a resolution calling for a constitutional amendment to reverse Citizens United. Then on January 30, 2012 they followed that action by officially supporting a similar call at the state level (S772).

    • On February 14, 2012, the Lynn City Council passed a resolution (see pgs. 8-9) calling for a constitutional amendment to reverse Citizens United and restore constitutional rights and fair elections to the people.

    • On February 29, 2012, the Boston City Council passed (see item 0324) a resolution supporting the restoration of free speech and fair elections to individuals and urging passage of S772, the state's call for a constitutional amendment.

    • On March 26, 2012, the Lincoln Town Meeting passed a resolution (see pgs. 52-53, "ARTICLE 39") calling for a constitutional amendment to define constitutional rights as those of natural persons, and to establish that constitutional use of "people," "person," and "citizen" does not encompass corporations and similar entities, thus such entities are subject to reasonable regulation.

    • On March 27, 2012, the Newburyport Town Council passed a resolution that supports a constitutional amendment to overturn Citizens United.

    • On April 3, 2012, the Town of Acton passed a resolution calling for a constitutional amendment to overturn Citizens United. “To see if the Town will vote to adopt a resolution calling upon the Congress of the United States to pass and send to the States for ratification a constitutional amendment to reverse the decision of the United States Supreme Court in Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission, to declare that corporations are not “persons” under the First Amendment to the United States Constitution, and to restore to the People their right to regulate the expenditures of corporations to ensure fair elections”

    • On April 5, 2012, the Falmouth Town Meeting passed a resolution (page 14) calling for a constitutional amendment to specify that only natural persons possess constitutional personhood rights.

    • On April 10, 2012, the Town of Oak Bluffs passed a resolution that supports a constitutional amendment to overturn Citizens United.

    • On April 10, 2012, the Town of Edgartown passed a resolution that condemns Citizens United and calls for aconstitutional amendment to overturn the ruling.

    • On April 10, 2012, the Town of West Tisbury passed a resolution supporting a constitutional amendment to overturn Citizens United.

    • On April 10, 2012, the Town of Tisbury passed a resolution condemning Citizens United and supporting a constitutional amendment to overturn the ruling.

    • On April 12, 2012, the Natick Town Meeting passed a resolution (see page 1, "Ms. Boggia") to declare that the Constitution protects the rights of the people, not corporations, that corporations and private entities are not people and are thus subject to regulation, and that Citizens United unleashed a threatening wave of unlimited election spending form undisclosed special interest sources. Therefore, the Meeting urged, state and federal elected officials should support legislation and a constitutional amendment to reverse the decision, and should work toward fair elections.

    • On April 23, 2012, the Chilmark Town Meeting passed (see page 3, "ARTICLE 22") a resolution (see pgs. 4-5, "ARTICLE 22") calling for a constitutional amendment to restore the First Amendment and fair elections to the people.

    • On April 24, 2012, the Framingham Town Meeting passed a resolution (see page 8) calling for a constitutional amendment to give federal and state governments the power to regulate and reasonably limit all election contributions and expenditures, and to authorize the establishment of political committees to receive and spend them and publicly disclose their sources.

    • On April 26, 2012, the Concord Town Meeting passed (see page 3, item 48) a resolution calling for a constitutional amendment to reverse Citizens United, declare that corporations are not people under the First Amendment, and restore the people's right to regulate corporate expenditures to ensure fair elections.

    • On April 28, 2012, the Town of Leverett passed a second resolution condemning Citizens United and calling for a constitutional amendment to reverse the decision.

    • On April 28, 2012, the Town of Nahant passed its first resolution, calling on the US Congress to pass and send to the states for ratification a constitutional amendment to overturn Citizens United and restore democracy to the people.

    • On April 30, 2012, the Town of Reading passed a resolution calling on the US Congress to pass and send to the states for ratification a constitutional amendment to restore the First Amendment and fair elections to the people, and calling on the Massachusetts legislature to pass one or more similar resolutions.

    • On April 30, 2012, the West Newbury Town Meeting moved in favor of (see pgs. 36-37, "ARTICLE 16") supporting a constitutional amendment to reverse Citizens United.

    • On May 1, 2012, the Town of Shelburne passed a resolution condemning Citizens United and calling for a constitutional amendment to overturn the ruling.

    • On May 1, 2012, the Town of Deerfield passed a resolution condemning Citizens United and calling for a constitutional amendment to overturn the ruling.

    • On May 1, 2012, the Westport Town Meeting passed a resolution (page 48) calling for a constitutional amendment, specifically H.J.Res. 88, which was introduced by US Representative James P. McGovern [MA-2] during the 112th US Congress to establish that constitutional rights belong to natural persons.

    • On May 3, 2012, the Northampton City Council passed a resolution (see pgs. 1-2, "Resolution to Amend") calling for a constitutional amendment to establish that constitutional use of "people," "person," and "citizen" does not encompass corporations and similar entities, and to reverse Citizens United, thereby restoring constitutional rights and fair elections to the people. (See page 1, "Resolution to Amend" for more information.)

    • On May 4, 2012, the Cummington Town Meeting passed a resolution (see pgs. 51-52, "Article 21") calling for a constitutional amendment to abolish corporate personhood and reclaim our sovereign right to self-governance. The Meeting also supported public education on the democratic threats posed by corporate personhood, and encouraged lively discussion toward responding to such threats.

    • On May 5, 2012, the Montague Town Meeting passed a resolution (see pgs. 8-9, "ARTICLE 29") calling for a constitutional amendment to provide that corporations are not entitled to the constitutional rights of real people, nor is money speech for purposes of campaign-related expenditures and contributions. The resolution proposed specific amendment language.

    • On May 5, 2012, the Monterey Town Meeting passed (see page 11, "ARTICLE 27") a resolution calling for a constitutional amendment to reverse Citizens United and restore constitutional rights and fair elections to the people.

    • On May 5, 2012, the Town of Pelham passed a resolution calling for a constitutional amendment to overturn Citizens United.

    • On May 5, 2012, the Town of Warren passed a resolution calling for a constitutional amendment to overturn Citizens United.

    • On May 5, 2012, the Town of Ashfield voted in favor (with only two dissenting votes out of 65) to support a resolution in favor of amending the Constitution to overturn Citizens United.

    • On May 5, 2012, the Shutesbury Town Meeting passed a resolution (see pgs. 5-6, "Article 22") officially supporting S772, the state's call for a constitutional amendment to restore the First Amendment and fair elections to the people, and further outling an amendment proposal to reverse Citizens United, assert the people's sovereignty from the corrupting influence of money in politics, and restore consitutional rights and fair elections to the people.

    • On May 7, 2012, the Amherst Town Meeting passed a resolution (see page 11, "ARTICLE 28") calling for a constitutional amendment to reverse Citizens United and restore constitutional rights and fair elections to the people. (Click here for more information.)

    • On May 7, 2012, the Sheffield Town Meeting passed a resolution (see pgs. 3-4, "ARTICLE 30") calling for a constitutional amendment to ban or at least regulate, with punitive assurances, election spending by corporations and similar entities.

    • On May 7, 2012, the Town of Warwick passed a resolution calling for a constitutional amendment to overturn the Citizens United decision.

    • On May 7, 2012, the Swampscott Town Meeting passed a resolution calling for a constitutional amendment to establish that corporations are not people and do not have the same constitutional rights as people, can be regulated, and are prohibited from making campaign contributions; also that federal and state governments have the power to reasonably limit election spending.

    • On May 8, 2012, the Town of Colrain passed a resolution calling for a constitutional amendment to overturn the Citizens United decision.

    • On May 8, 2012, the Aquinnah Town Meeting passed a resolution (page 9) officialy supporting S772, the state's call for a constitutional amendment to restore the First Amendment and fair elections to the people.

    • On May 9, 2012, the Town of West Tisbury passed a resolution calling for a constitutional amendment to overturn the Citizens United decision.

    • On May 9, 2012, the Buckland Town Meeting supported (see page 7, "ARTICLE 29") a constitutional amendment (see page 5, "ARTICLE 29") to define constitutional rights as those of natural persons, and to establish that constitutional use of "people," "person," and "citizen" does not encompass corporations and similar entities, thus such entities are subject to reasonable regulation.

    • On May 10, 2012, the Salem City Council passed a Restoring Demcoracy to the People resolution that condemns Citizens United and supports a constitutional amendment to reverse the decision.

    • On May 14, 2012, the Town of Conway passed a resolution instructing its US Representative and the state's US Senators to propose and Massachusetts legislators to ratify a constitutional amendment stating, without abridging freedom of the press, that corporations are not people, and money is not speech; thus they can be regulated. The resolution both affirms these principles and also includes specific amendment language.

    • On May 14, 2012, the Needham Town Meeting passed a resolution calling for a constitutional amendment to overturn Citizens United. Subsitute language was adopted after the original warrant (pgs. 33-34) was issued.

    • On May 14, 2012, the Town of Rowe passed a resolution calling for a constitutional amendment to overturn Citizens United

    • On May 14, 2012, the Town of Medway passed a resolution approving Article 49 and urged support for the Senate Bill 772: A Resolution Restoring Free Speech, sponsored by state Sen. Jamie Eldridge.

    • On May 15, 2012, the Town of Otis passed a resolution calling for a constitutional amendment to overturn Citizens United.

    • On May 15, 2012, the City Council of Worcester passed a resolution that condemns Citizens United and supports the People. Rights amendment.

    • On May 16, 2012, the Town of Arlington passed a resolution condemning Citizens United and calling for a constitutional amendment to overturn the ruling.

    • On May 17, 2012, the Boxborough Town Meeting passed a resolution (pgs. 65-67) to oppose Citizens United and call for a constitutional amendment to establish that corporations do not hold the same rights as natural persons.

    • On May 21, 2012, the Town of Somerset passed a resolution to abolish corporate personhood.

    • On May 22, 2012, the Brookline Town Meeting passed (see item 29) a resolution (pgs. 293-299, esp. from 296) calling for a constitutional amendment to establish federal, state, and local authority to regulate election spending and allow public financing, and to establish that only natural persons have electoral free speech rights.

    • On May 22, 2012, the Town of Charlemont passed a resolution supporting abolishing corporate personhood.

    • On May 22, 2012, the Town of Newbury passed a resolution calling on the US Congress to pass and send to the states for ratification a constitutional amendment to overturn Citizens United and restoring democracy to the people, by specifying that corporations are not people and do not share the same rights; people have the right to regulate corporations; corporations cannot make campaign contributions; and Congress and the states have the power to regulate election spending. The resolution also calls on other communities and jurisdictions to pass similar resolutions.

    • On May 23, 2012, the Town of Richmond passed a resolution to abolish corporate personhood.

    • On May 25, 2012, the Town of Stockbridge passed a resolution in opposition to Citizens United.

    • On June 4, 2012, the City Council of Quincy passed a resolution calling for a constitutional amendment to overturn Citizens United.

    • On June 4, 2012, the Town of Wendell passed a resolution to show their support for a constitutional amendment proclaiming that the rights listed in the bill of rights are for people, rather than corporations.

    • On June 7, 2012, the Town of Bernardston passed a resolution advocating for the reversal of Citizens United v. FEC by way of a constitutional amendment.

    • On June 20, 2012, the Lenox Board of Selectmen passed a resolution calling to overturn Citizens United

    • On July 9, 2012, the Newton Board of Alderman passed a resolution calling for "a constitutional amendment to restore the First Amendment and fair elections to the people by clarifying (1) that corporations are not entitled to the Constitutional rights of human beings, and, (2) that the U.S. Congress and the states may place reasonable limits on both political contributions and political spending." The Programs & Services Committee vote was 6-0, and the full Board vote was 23-1.

    • On July 10, 2012, the Stoughton Board of Selectmen voted 4-1 to endorse a Moveon.org petition to overturn Citizens United.

    • On July 16, 2012, the Springfield City Council passed a resolution calling for a constitutional amendment to restore the First Amendment.

    • On August 6, 2012, the Methueun City Council passed (see page 7, item 11, TR-12-36) a resolution opposing Citizens United and calling for a constitutional amendment to limit corporate influence and restore democracy in our elections, thus overturning the ruling.

    • On August 14, 2012, the Pittsfield City Council considered and passed a resolution calling for a constitutional amendment to overturn Citizens United. This followed subcommittee action on August 6.

    • At the Fall Town Meeting on September 11, 2012, the citizens of Rockport passed a resolution calling for a constitutional amendment, making Rockport the 71st MA community to do so.

    • On October 16, 2012, the West Brookfield Town Meeting called for (see page 16, "Article 11") a constitutional amndment to reverse Citizens United and restore constitutional rights and fair election to the people.

    • On November 6, 2012, the citizens of Gloucester voted 78% to 22% in favor (see page 2, Question 5) when asked (see Question 5), "Shall the state representative from this district be instructed to vote in favor of a resolution calling upon Congress to propose an amendment to the U.S. constitution affirming that (1) corporations are not entitled to the constitutional rights of human beings, and (2) both Congress and the states may place limits on political contributions and political spending?" This followed the October 9, 2012 passage of a resolution (pgs. 17-18) by the Gloucester City Council calling for a constitutional amendment to restore the First Amendment and fair elections to the people.

    • On December 3, 2012, the Town of Sharon passed a resolution calling for a constitutional amendment that asserts corporations are not people and thus are not entitled to constitutional protections, and restricting election expenditures is not equivalent to restricting speech.

    • On December 11, 2012, the Town of Watertown passed a resolution calling for a constitutional amendment to overturn Citizens United.

    • On April 10, 2013, the Town of Scituate passed a resolution calling on the US Congress to pass and send to the states for ratification a constitutional amendment affirming that corporations are not entitled to the same constitutional rights as human beings, and that federal, state, and local governments may limit political contributions and expenditures from any source.

    • On April 27, 2013, the Town of Nahant passed its second resolution, calling on Massachusetts legislators and the state's delegation to the US Congress to support any constitutional amendment based on the idea that corporations are not people, and money is not speech; they can be regulated. Nahant also stipulated that nothing should be construed to abridge the freedom of the press.

    • On May 4, 2013, the Ashburnham Town Meeting passed a resolution (page 11) calling for a constitutional amendment to provide that corporations are not entitled to the constitutional rights of real people, nor is money speech.

    • On May 6, 2013, the Saugus Town Meeting passed a resolution (see pgs. 4-5, "Article 25") calling for a constitutional amendment to affirm that corporations are not entitled to the constitutional rights of human beings, nor is money speech.

    • On May 6, 2013, the Sandwich Town Meeting passed a resolution (see pgs. 45-46, "Article 24") calling for a constitutional amendment to reverse Citizens United and restore the First Amendment and fair elections to we the people.

    • On May 7, 2013, the Essex Town Meeting carried a motion (see page 9, "Article 41") calling for a constitutional amendment to affirm that corporations are not entitled to the constitutional rights of human beings, and that Congress and the states may limit both political contributions and political spending.

    • On May 8, 2013, the Town of Oxford passed a resolution calling on the US Congress to pass and send to the states for ratification a constitutional amendment to "affirm that corporations are not entitled to the constitutional rights of human beings, and that Congress, and state and local governments may place limits on political contributions and expenditures from any source."

    • On May 13, 2013, the Town of Monson passed a resolution instructing its US Representative and the state's US Senators to propose and Massachusetts legislators to ratify a constitutional amendment stating, without abridging freedom of the press, that corporations are not people, and money is not speech; thus they can be regulated. The resolution both affirms these principles and also includes specific amendment language.

    • On May 20, 2013, the Town of Brimfield passed a resolution calling on the US Congress to pass and send to the states for ratification a constitutional amendment reversing Citizens United and restoring constitutional rights and fair elections to the people.

    • On May 20, 2013, the Burlington Town Meeting passed following a failed amendment vote (pgs. 9-10) a resolution (pgs. 12-13) calling for a constitutional amendment to affirm that corporations are not entitled to the constitutional rights of human beings, and that Congress and state and local governments may limit both political contributions and political expenditures.

 

Michigan


  • State Resolutions

  • Local Resolutions - Passed

    • On August 21, 2012, the Ypsilanti City Council passed (see page 9, above item XII) a resolution (see pgage 6, item 4) calling for a constitutional amendment to overturn Citizens United and clarify that constitutional rights are not extended to corporations.

    • On September 11, 2012, the Grand Rapids City Commissioners drafted and sent a letter to Governor Snyder calling for the overturn of Citizens United and abolishment of "corporate personhood" and "money-is-speech."

    • On September 24, 2012, the Lansing City Council passed a resolution (see page 3, "Resolution #2012-211") calling for full disclosure of independent expenditures in federal, state, and local elections, and for a constiutitional amendment stating that corporations are not people, money is not speech, and federal, state, and local governments can regulate election expenditures.

    • On September 24, 2012, the Ingham County Board of Commissioners passed a resolution calling for a constitutional amendment "to defend democracy from the corrupting influences of undue corporate power through campaign contributions."

    • On October 15, 2012, the Ann Arbor City Council passed a resolution calling for corrective legislation to clarify that constitutional rights are not extended to corporations, and for a constitutional amendment to overturn Citizens United.

    • On November 25, 2013, the Ferndale City Council passed (see item 7B and "Moved" below item 7D) a resolution calling for a constitutional amendment to abolish corporate personhood and the doctrine of money as speech, and to claim our sovereign right to self-governance. The Council also supported public education on the democratic threats posed by corporate personhood, and encouraged lively discussion toward responding to such threats.

 

Minnesota


  • State Resolutions

    • HF276, introduced on January 13, 2013 by Representative Raymond Dehn (DFL-59B), et al., requested that Congress propose a constitutional amendment or call for a constitutional convention to clarify that only natural persons have rights under the Constitution, and that election spending is not speech protected by the First Amendment. It was passed by the House Elections Committee on March 21, 2013, and the House Civil Law Committee on April 2, 2013, but the legislature proceeded with an alternate proposal, SF17.

    • SF683, introduced on March 9, 2011 by Senator D. Scott Dibble (DFL-61) et al, provided that corporations are not natural persons and proposed a ballot question regarding corporate personhood and a constitutional amendment. No action was taken by the Judiciary and Public Safety Committee was taken before the session adjourned on May 23, 2011, nor was action taken during the 2012 carryover.

    • HF0914, introduced on March 7, 2011 by Representative Bill Hilty (DFL-8A) et al, provided that corporations are not natural persons and proposed a ballot question regarding corporate personhood and a constitutional amendment. No action was taken by the Civil Law Committee before the session adjourned on May 23, 2011, nor was action taken during the 2012 carryover.

  • Local Resolutions - Passed

    • On December 13, 2011, the City Council of Duluth passed a resolution in opposition to Citizens United and the legal definition of corporate personhood.

    • On June 11, 2012, the St. Paul City Council passed a resolution supporting a constitutional amendment that only human beings, not corporations, are protected by democratic rights.

    • On June 15, 2012, the Minneapolis City Council unanimously passed a resolution calling for the end to corporate personhood.

 

Mississippi


  • State Resolutions

    • HC 108, introduced on April 5, 2012 by Representative James Evans, provided for a constitutional convention with the sole purpose of proposing a constitutional amendment to abolish the concept of corporate personhood. No action was taken by the Rules Committee before the session adjourned on May 5, 2012. No carryover from 2012 to 2013.

    • HC22, introduced on January 11, 2013, by Representative Evans, would call for a constitutional convention limited to amending the Constitution to abolish corporate personhood. It died in committee on April 4, 2013.

  • Local Resolutions - Passed

    • On December 13, 2011, the Jackson City Council passed a resolution supporting a constitutional amendment to overturn the Citizens United decision and to clarify that corporations are not people protected by the First Amendment.

 

Missouri


  • State Resolutions

    • HCR 38, introduced by Representative Tracy McCreery, called for a constitutional amendment clearly stating that corporations are not human beings and do not have the same rights as US citizens. No action was taken by the General Laws Committee before the session adjourned on May 30, 2012. No carryover from 2012 to 2013.

  • Local Resolutions - Passed

    • On June 14, 2012, Kansas City Council unanimously approved a resolution Thursday supporting a constitutional amendment to overturn the Supreme Court.s Citizens United ruling of 2010.

    • On October 13, the Board of Trustees of the Village of Freistatt resolved to support a constitutional amendment clearly stating that corporations are not entitled to inalienable rights.

    • On November 12, 2012, the Pierce City Council passed a resolution calling for a constitutional amendment stating that money is not speech and ending corporate personhood.

    • On December 10, 2012, the Purdy City Council passed a resolution calling for a constitutional amendment stating that money is not speech and ending corporate personhood.

    • On January 29, 2013, the City of Verona passed a resolution calling for a constitutional amendment stating that money is not speech and ending corporate personhood.

    • On March 13, 2013, the Exeter City Council passed a resolution calling for a constitutional amendment stating that money is not speech and ending corporate personhood.

    • On April 9, 2013, the Seligman Board of Aldermen passed a resolution calling for a constitutional amendment to establish that corporations are not endowed with constitutional rights, nor is money speech.

    • On May 14, 2013, the Granby City Council passed a resolution calling for a constitutional amendment stating that money is not speech and ending corporate personhood.

 

Montana


  • State Resolutions

    • On November 6, 2012, Ballot Initiative 166, Stand with Montanans, passed in Montana with 75% of the vote. Initiative 166 established "a state policy that corporations are not entitled to constitutional rights because they are not human beings, and charges Montana elected and appointed officials, state and federal, to implement that policy. With this policy, the people of Montana establish that there should be a level playing field in campaign spending, in part by prohibiting corporate campaign contributions and expenditures and by limiting political spending in elections. Further, Montana's congressional delegation is charged with proposing a joint resolution offering a constitutional amendment to establish that corporations are not human beings entitled to constitutional rights."

    • On February 20, 2013, Senator Cliff Larseon introduced SJ 19, proposing that, following the successful I-166 initiatives, Montana public officials and Congress work to pass a constitutional amendment to overturn Citizens United v. FEC. It passed the Senate by a 27-21 vote on February 27, 2013 and was heard in the House Judiciary Committee on March 22. The Committee tabled the resolution on April 4, and it officially died on April 24. The session adjourned on April 27, and there is no carryover from 2013 to 2014.

    • HJ 10, introduced by Representative Hill on February 2, 2011, proposed that Congress pass a constitutional amendment to overturn Citizens United. It was tabled by the Business and Labor Committee and not further considered before the session adjourned on April 28, 2011. The legislature did not meet in 2012.

  • Local Resolutions - Passed

    • On August 23, 2011, the Missoula City Council voted to place a referendum on the 2011 ballot that urges federal and state lawmakers to amend the U.S. Constitution to clearly state "that corporations are not human beings and do not have the same rights as citizens." On November 8, 2011, Missoula voters approved a local ballot referendum urging Congress to propose a constitutional amendment that clearly states that corporations are not people and do not have the same rights as citizens by a three to one margin.

    • On May 2, 2012, the City Council of Hot Springs unanimously passed a resolution supporting an amendment to overturn Citizens United and provide that corporations are not people.

 

Nebraska


  • State Resolutions

    • LR23, introduced on January 17, 2013 by Legislator Avery, would request a constitutional amendment to overturn Citizens United from Congress. It was referred to the Government, Military, and Veterans Affairs Committee on January 22nd.

  • Local Resolutions - Passed

Nevada


  • State Resolutions

    • SJR 11, introdued by Senator Pat Spearman and Assemblywoman Olivia Diaz, et al., on March 18, 2013, urged Congress to pass a constitutional amendment restoring state and federal government authority to regulate and restrict independent political expenditures. It passed out of the Senate Legislative Operations and Elections Committee on April 9, and was amended as recommended on April 10, but failed a Senate vote (10-11) on April 15. It will not be reconsidered this session, and there is no carryover from 2013 to 2014.

  • Local Resolutions - Passed

     

    New Hampshire


    • State Resolutions

      • HR 7, introduced by Representatives Pastor, Cushing, and Higgins on January 3, 2013, supported a constitutional amendment to re-establish congressional authority to regulate campaign spending by legal entities. It was voted Inexpedient to Legislate by the House State-Federal Relations and Veterans Affiars Committee and later laid on the table in the full House. It is unlikely to be revisited in 2013 or 2014.

      • HR 8, introduced by Representatives Pierce and Richardson on January 6, 2011, supported a constitutional amendment to re-establish congressional authority to regulate corporate campaign spending. It failed to pass the House State-Federal Relations and Veterans Affairs Committee, and the session adjourned on July 1, 2011. It was not revisited during the 2012 carryover.

      • HCR 1, introduced by Representatives Weed and Car on January 5, 2011, supported a constitutional amendment to provide that constitutional rights such as free speech apply to living persons, and not to corporations, for the purpose of electioneering, among others. It failed to pass the House State-Federal Relations and Veterans Affairs Committee, and the session adjourned on July 1, 2011. It was not revisited during the 2012 carryover.

      • HCR2, introduced on January 3rd, 2013, into the House by Representative Cushing with co-sponsorship by Weed, Pastor and Cooney, would request Congress to support a constitutional amendment "establishing that human beings, not corporations, are entitled to constitutional rights." It was not introduced into the Senate due to New Hampshire's Senate Rule 3-26, which holds that "The only resolutions that may be introduced into the Senate are: resolutions seeking an advisory opinion of the supreme court under the New Hampshire Constitution; joint resolutions sponsored by the Joint Legislative Committee on Administrative Rules; resolutions ratifying amendments to the U.S. Constitution; resolutions proposing amendment of the New Hampshire Constitution; and procedural and rules resolutions prepared by the Clerk."

    • Local Resolutions - Passed

      • On March 14, 2012, the Bradford Town Meeting passed a resolution (See 03.14.12, "Article Thirty Two") calling for a constitutional amendment to establish that corporations are note entitled to human rights, nor is corporate spending constitutionally protected speech.

      • In 2012, Barnstead voted to pass a resolution calling for a constitutional amendment to overturn Citizens United.

      • On April 9, 2013, the Conway Town Meeting passed a resolution (page 21) calling for a constitutional amendment to establish that constitutional rights belong to natural persons, and that federal and state legislatures can regulate and limit election expenditures.

      • On February 19, 2014, the Town of Andover voted on a resolution urging Congress to pass a constitutional amendment to overturn the Citizens United decision.

      • On March 11, 2014, the Town of Alstead voted on a resolution urging Congress to pass a constitutional amendment to overturn Citizens United.

      • On March 11, 2014, the Town of Amherst voted on a resolution urging Congress to pass a constitutional amendment to overturn Citizens United.

      • On March 11, 2014, the Town of Atkinson voted on a resolution urging Congress to pass a constitutional amendment to overturn Citizens United.

      • On March 11, 2014, the Town of Barrington voted on a resolution urging Congress to pass a constitutional amendment to overturn Citizens United.

      • On March 11, 2014, the Town of Bridgewater voted on a resolution urging Congress to pass a constitutional amendment to overturn Citizens United.

      • On March 11, 2014, the Town of Chesterfield voted on a resolution urging Congress to pass a constitutional amendment to overturn Citizens United.

      • On March 11, 2014, the Town of Danville voted on a resolution urging Congress to pass a constitutional amendment to overturn Citizens United.

      • On March 11, 2014, the Town of Deerfield voted on a resolution urging Congress to pass a constitutional amendment to overturn Citizens United.

      • On March 11, 2014, the Town of Eaton voted on a resolution urging Congress to pass a constitutional amendment "declaring that rights and protections afforded to citizens by the Constitution of the United States apply only to natural persons; and the Federal and State legislatures shall have the authority to regulate and limit, but not ban, all expenditures from any source supporting or opposing election of any candidate for Federal or State office, or any initiative or referendum."

      • On March 11, 2014, the Town of Exeter voted on a resolution urging Congress to pass a constitutional amendment to overturn Citizens United.

      • On March 11, 2014, the Town of Hampstead voted on a resolution urging Congress to pass a constitutional amendment to overturn Citizens United.

      • On March 11, 2014, the Town of Harrisville voted on a resolution urging Congress to pass a constitutional amendment to overturn Citizens United.

      • On March 11, 2014, the Town of Hudson voted on a resolution urging Congress to pass a constitutional amendment to overturn Citizens United.

      • On March 11, 2014, the Town of Kingston voted on a resolution urging Congress to pass a constitutional amendment to overturn Citizens United.

      • On March 11, 2014, the Town of Lee voted on a resolution urging Congress to pass a constitutional amendment to clarify that "1. Constitutional rights were established for people, not corporations, and 2. Money is not speech, and therefore regulating political contributions and spending is not equivalent to limiting political speech." .

      • On March 11, 2014, the Town of Lyme voted on a resolution urging Congress to pass a constitutional amendment that "1) guarantees the right of our elected representatives and of the American people to safeguard fair elections through authority to regulate political pending, and (2) clarifies that constitutional rights were established for natural persons only, not corporations, unions, or other artificial entities."

      • On March 11, 2014, the Town of Milford voted on a resolution urging Congress to pass a constitutional amendment to overturn Citizens United and end corporate constitutional rights.

      • On March 11, 2014, the Town of New Boston voted on a resolution urging Congress to pass a constitutional amendment to overturn Citizens United and end corporate constitutional rights.

      • On March 11, 2014, the Town of Northwood voted on a resolution urging Congress to pass a constitutional amendment to overturn Citizens United.

      • On March 11, 2014, the Town of Pelham voted on a resolution urging Congress to pass a constitutional amendment that "1) guarantees the right of our elected representatives and of the American people to safeguard fair elections through authority to regulate political pending, and (2) clarifies that constitutional rights were established for natural persons only, not corporations, unions, or other artificial entities."

      • On March 11, 2014, the Town of Piermont voted on a resolution urging Congress to pass a constitutional amendment to overturn Citizens United.

      • On March 11, 2014, the Town of Rindge voted on a resolution urging Congress to pass a constitutional amendment to overturn Citizens United.

      • On March 11, 2014, the Town of Salem voted on a resolution urging Congress to pass a constitutional amendment to overturn the Citizens United decision.

      • On March 11, 2014, the Town of Sharon voted on a resolution urging Congress to pass a constitutional amendment to overturn Citizens United.

      • On March 11, 2014, the Town of Wakefield voted on a resolution urging Congress to pass a constitutional amendment to overturn Citizens United.

      • On March 11, 2014, the Town of Waterville Valley voted on a resolution urging Congress to pass a constitutional amendment to overturn Citizens United.

      • On March 11, 2014, the Town of Windham voted on a resolution urging Congress to pass a constitutional amendment to overturn Citizens United.

      • On March 12, 2014, the Town of Hollis voted on a resolution urging Congress to pass a constitutional amendment to overturn Citizens United.

      • On March 12, 2014, the Town of Warner voted on a resolution urging Congress to pass a constitutional amendment to clarify that "1. Only humabn beings, not corporations, are endowed with constitutional rights, and 2. Money is not speech, and therefore regulating political contributions and spending is not limiting political speech."

      • On March 13, 2014, the Town of Sandwich voted on a resolution urging Congress to pass a constitutional amendment to overturn Citizens United.

      • On March 14, 2014, the Town of Plymouth voted on a resolution urging Congress to pass a constitutional amendment to overturn Citizens United.

      • On March 15, 2014, the Town of Bristol voted on a resolution urging Congress to pass a constitutional amendment "declaring that rights and protections afforded to citizens by the Constitution of the United States apply only to natural persons; and the Federal and State legislatures shall have the authority to regulate and limit, but not ban, all expenditures from any source supporting or opposing election of any candidate for Federal or State office, or any initiative or referendum." s.

      • On March 15, 2014, the Town of Dorchester voted on a resolution urging Congress to pass a constitutional amendment to overturn Citizens United.

      • On March 15, 2014, the Town of Dublin voted on a resolution urging Congress to pass a constitutional amendment to overturn Citizens United.

      • On March 15, 2014, the Town of Francetown voted on a resolution urging Congress to pass a constitutional amendment to overturn Citizens United.

      • On March 15, 2014, the Town of Groton voted on a resolution urging Congress to pass a constitutional amendment to overturn Citizens United.

      • On March 15, 2014, the Town of Hancock voted on a resolution "calling upon Congress to move forward a constitutional amendment that guarantees the right of our elected representatives and of the American people to safeguard fair elections through authority to regulate political spending, and clarifies that constitutional rights were established for people not corporations."

      • On March 15, 2014, the Town of Henniker voted on a resolution urging Congress to pass a constitutional amendment declaring that rights and protections afforded to citizens by the Constitution of the United States apply only to natural persons; and the Federal and State legislatures shall have the authority to regulate and limit, but not ban, all expenditures from any source supporting or opposing election of any candidate for Federal or State office, or any initiative or referendum..

      • On March 15, 2014, the Town of Jaffery voted on a resolution urging Congress to pass a constitutional amendment to overturn Citizens United.

      • On March 15, 2014, the Town of Nottingham voted on a resolution urging Congress to pass a constitutional amendment to overturn Citizens United.

      • On March 15, 2014, the Tilton Town Meeting passed a resolution (see pgs. 3-4, "Article 4") calling for a constitutional amendment to guarantee the authority to regulate political spending, and to clarify that constitutional rights are not for corporations.

      • On March 15, 2014, the Town of Webster voted on a resolution urging Congress to pass a constitutional amendment to overturn Citizens United.

     

    New Jersey


    • State Resolutions

      • AR64, introduced on March 4, 2010 by State Representative Herb Conway, called on Congress to propose a constitutional amendment to provide that, with regard to corporate campaign spending, a person means only a natural person for free speech protection under the First Amendment. No action was taken in the State Government Committee before the session adjourned, nor was any action taken during the 2011 carryover.

      • SR 47, introduced by State Senator Jeff Van Drew passed in the Senate on October 4, 2012. AR 86, introduced by State Representative Herb Conway passed in the Assembly on October 18, 2012 by a roll call vote. The companion bills "expresses strong opposition to the United States Supreme Court ruling in Citizens United v. Federal Elections Commission and calls upon the Congress of the United States to propose a constitutional amendment to provide that with regard to corporation campaign spending, a person means only a natural person for First Amendment protection of free speech.

    • Local Resolutions - Passed

      • On December 26, 2012, the Elizabeth City Council passed a resolution (see page 19) positing that corporations should not receive the same constitutional rights as natural persons, and because money is not speech, political spending limits promote constitutional goals by ensuring that all citizens' voices are heard. The Council also called for a constitutional amendment inclusive of these principles.

      • On April 10, 2012, the Franklin Township Council (Somerset County, NJ) passed a Resolution (#12-167) supporting a constitutional amendment to overturn Citizens United.

      • On October 17, 2012, the Highland Park Borough Council passed a resolution supporting a constitutional amendment to overturn the Citizens United decision.

      • On October 16, 2012, the Lawrence Township Council (Mercer County, NJ) passed a resolution supporting a constitutional amendment to overturn Citizens United.

      • On September 10, 2012, the Township of Princeton passed a resolution to support for efforts to pass a constitutional amendment related to campaign finance reform and ending the false doctrine of corporate constitutional rights and, respectfully urges New Jersey's Congressional delegation to prioritize congressional proposal of a constitutional amendment addressing the threats to representative government identified in this resolution so that the states may ratify it.

      • In November 2012, the Little Ferry Borough Council passed a resolution calling for the overturn of Citizens United.

      • On March 27, 2013, the Essex County Board of Chosen Freeholders considered (see item 46) and passed a resolution calling for a constitutional amendment to limit corporate and individual spending in our elections.

      • On May 1, 2013, the Newark Municipal Council passed a resolution positing that corporations should not receive the same constitutional rights as natural persons, and because money is not speech, political spending limits promote First Amendment goals by ensuring that all citizens' voices are heard. The Council also called for a constitutional amendment related to campaign finance reform and ending the false doctrine of corporate constitutional rights.

     

    New Mexico


    • State Resolutions

      • Joint Memorial 36, introduced on February 11, 2011 by Rep. Mimi Stewart (D-21), failed by one vote on the House floor. It expresses strong opposition to Citizens United and calls on Congress to propose and send to the states for ratification a constitutional amendment to restore free speech and fair elections to the people of the United States.

      • HM 4, introduced by Representative Stewart, passed in a 38-29 vote in the House on January 30, 2012. SM 3, introduced by Senator Fischmann, passed in a 20-9 vote in the Senate on February 7, 2012. The companion bills "express strong opposition to the United States supreme court's decision in Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission and call upon the United States congress to propose and send to the states for ratification an amendment to the United States constitution to restore republican democracy to the people of the United States."

    • Local Resolutions - Passed

      • On January 11, 2012, the City Council of Santa Fe passed a resolution calling for a constitutional amendment to overturn the Citizens United decision and clarify that corporations are not people.

      • On February 25, 2012, the Taos City Council passed a resolution condemning Citizens United and supporting a constitutional amendment to overturn the ruling.

      • On April 17, 2012, the Taos County Commission unanimously approved a resolution requesting Congress to propose a constitutional amendment to counter the effects of the Citizens United ruling.

     

    New York


    • State Resolutions

      • K01016, introduced by Assemblyman James Brennan on March 7, 2012, urges the US Congress to opposes Citizens United and pass a constitutional amendment to overturn the ruling, which would provide that corporations are not entitled to the entirety of protections or "rights" of natural persons, specifically so that the expenditure of corporate money to influence the electoral process is no longer a form of constitutionally protected speech and Congress and the States may fully regulate all election contributions and expenditures. It passed one vote in the Assembly Election Law committee, but otherwise did not pass prior to session adjournment.

    • Local Resolutions - Passed

      • On December 6, 2011, the Albany Common Council passed a resolution stating that "Corporations are not People."

      • On December 28, 2011, the Brighton Town Council voted to pass a resolution supporting abolishing corporate personhood.

      • On January 4, 2012, the New York City Council passed a resolution opposing the Supreme Court's interpretation in Citizens United of corporate constitutional rights and calling for a constitutional amendmen to provide that corporations are not entitled to the entirety of rights of natural persons, specifically so that corporate election spending is no longer a form of constitutionally protected speech.

      • On January 11, 2012, the Buffalo City Council passed a local resolution calling for a constitutional amendment to overturn Citizens United and clarify that corporations are not natural persons.

      • On February 1, 2012, the Common Council of Ithaca voted 8-1 in favor of a resolution calling on Congress to pass a constitutional amendment to end corporate personhood.

      • On February 13, 2012, the Town Board of Danby voted unanimously for a resolution calling on Congress to pass a constitutional amendment to end corporate personhood.

      • On March 1, 2012, the City of Troy passed a resolution calling for a constitutional amendment to overturn Citizens United and clarify that corporations are not people.

      • On March 26, 2012, the Yonkers City Council passed a resolution calling for a constitutional amendment to provide that corporations are not entitled to the entirety of protections or "rights" of natural persons, specifically so that the expenditure of corporate money to influence the electoral process is no longer a form of constitutionally protected speech.

      • On April 17, 2012, the Town Board of the Town of Cortlandt passed a resolution calling for a constitutional amendment to counteract the effects of the Citizens United decision.

      • On April 23, 2012, Peekskill resolved that the Common Council of the City of Peekskill supports amending the Consituttion to provide that corporations are not entitled to the entirety of protections of rights of natural persons, specifically so that the expenditure of corporate money to influence the electoral process is no longer a form of constitutionally protected speech.

      • On May 2, 2012, the Allegheny County Council approved a resolution supporting a constitutional amendment to overturn the Citizens United decision.

      • On May 6, 2012, the Tompkins County legislature passed three resolutions calling for campaign finance reform, abolition corporate personhood, and a constitutional amendment to overturn Citizens United.

      • On May 8, 2012, the Mt Kisco Village Board of Trustees unanimously passed a resolution calling for a constitutional amendment that declares corporations are not given the same legal status as people and that corporate spending for influencing elections is not deemed to be a form of speech.

      • On June 13, 2012, the Mount Vernon City Council adopted a resolution calling for a constitutional amendment to overturn the Citizens United decision.

      • On June 19, 2012, the Executive Committee of Sullivan County passed a resolution opposing the United States Supreme Court's interpretation of the Constitution in Citizens United regarding the constitutional rights of corporations, supporting a constitutional amendment to provide that corporations are not entitled to the entirety of protections or 'rights' of a natural person, specifically so the expenditure of corporate money to influence the electoral process should no longer a form of constitutionally protected speech; and calling on congress to begin the process of amending the Constitution.

      • On August 6, 2012, the Corning City Council passed a resolution calling for a Constitutional amendment to abolish corporate personhood.

      • On April 9, 2014, the Caroline Town Board passed a resolution (see pgs. 4-6, "Resolution 94 of 2014") calling for a constitutional amendment to state that the inalienable rights recognized by the Constiution do not belong to legal entities, nor is money speech. The Board allowed for the continued raising and spending of money by political parties. They also supported public education on the democratic threats posed by corporate personhood, and encouraged lively discussion toward responding to such threats.

      • On May 15, 2014, the Town Board of Dryden passed a resolution calling for an amendment that states money is not speech and only individuals, not corporations, should have constitutional rights.

     

    North Carolina


    • State Resolutions

      • HJR 1201, introduced by State Representatives Insko, Rapp, Harrison, and Keever on May 30, 2012, opposes Citizens United and calls upon Congress to pass a constitutinal amendment "to restore republican democracy to the people of the United States, to clarify that corporations are not natural persons and should not be afforded the same rights as natural persons, and to state that money is not speech." Its Senate Companion, SJR 937, was introduced by State Senator Eleanor Kinnaird. Neither version was brought up for committee or floor consideration, thus it did not pass prior to adjournment of the 2012 session.

      • S109, introduced on February 19, 2013, by Senators Kinnaird and Davis, calls on Congress to pass an amendment stating that corporations are not natural persons, and that money is not speech. A companion bill, H171, was introduced on February 27, 2013, by Representative Insko, with co-sponsorship by Harrison, Luebke, Alexander, Farmer-Butterfield, Fisher, Foushee, Gill, Glazier, Graham, Hall, Hamilton, Lucas, Richardson, and Wilson. Both bills have currently been referred to committee.

    • Local Resolutions - Passed

      • On January 9, 2012,the Chapel Hill Town Council passed the Move to Amend Resolution stating that corporations are not people and that money is not speech.

      • On January 17, 2012, the Carrboro Board of Alderman unanimously passed a resolution in to clarify that "corporations are not people and money is not speech."

      • On February 14, 2012, Asheville passed a local resolution calling for the reversal of Citizens United, stating that corporations are not people protected by the First Amendment.

      • On February 21, 2012, the Board of Commission of Orange County passed a resolution calling for a constitutional amendment to provide that corporations are not people.

      • On April 2, 2012, the Franklin Board of Alderman passed a resolution calling upon the North Carolina General Assembly to petition Congress for a constitutional amendment to overturn Citizens United.

      • On April 4, 2012, the Board of Aldermen of Bryson City passed a resolution to support a constitutional amendment to abolish the doctrine that money is speech and that human beings, rather than corporations, are protected by democratic rights.

      • On April 17, 2012, the Highlands Town Council passed a resolution supporting a constitutional amendment to provide that corporations are not people, and that money is not speech.

      • On May 2, 2012, the Alleghany County Council approved a resolution supporting a constitutional amendment to overturn the Citizens United decision.

      • On May 24, 2012, the City Council of Durham supported a constitutional amendment to "defend democracy from the corrupting effects of corporate power."

      • On June 6, 2012, the Webster Town Board unanimously moved to support the Move to Amend resolution, to be presented to Raleigh state legislature.

      • On July 3, 2012, the Raleigh City Council passed a resolution condemning Citizens United and calling for a constitutional amendment to overturn the decision by a 6-3 vote.

      • In September of 2012, the Forest Hills City Board approved a resolution opposing Citizens United. The resolution passed 2-1. Clark Corwin and Suzanne Stone favored the resolution, while Carl Hooper voting against it. Gene Tweedy was absent.

      • On September 11 2012, the Greensville City Council passed a resolution requesting a constitutional amendment to clarify that corporations are not people and financial contributions are not speech.

      • On October 2, 2012, the Greensboro City Council passed a resolution supporting a constitutional amendment to reverse the effects of Citizens United.

     

    North Dakota


    • State Resolutions
    • Local Resolutions - Passed

     

    Northern Mariana Islands


    • Territorial Resolutions
    • Local Resolutions - Passed

     

    Ohio


    • State Resolutions

    • Local Resolutions - Passed

      • On February 6, 2012, the City Council of Athens unanimously passed a resolution rejecting Citizens United and calling for a constitutional amendment to redefine corporate constitutional rights.

      • On February 23, 2012, the Oberlin City Council unanimously approved a resolution calling upon the US Congress and Ohio legislature to create a constitutional amendment to reverse Citizens United and reinstates that free speech is a right of persons, not corporations.

      • On June 18, 2012, Cleveland Heights City Council passed a resolution calling to abolish corporate personhood and overturn Citizens United.

      • On July 18, 2012, Newburgh Heights passed a resolution calling for a constitutional amendment to reverse Citizens United.

      • On July 23, 2012, the Barberton City Council passed a resolution calling for a constitutional amendment to establish that corporations are not endowed with constiutional rights, nor is money speech.

      • On November 6, 2012, the citizens of Brecksville voted (see page 14, item 25) 52% to 48% in favor of (see "25 - Brecksville Proposed Ordinance") a city ordinance establishing "Demcoracy Day" and calling for a constitutional amendment to declare that corporations are not people, nor is money speech. (Click here for more information.)

      • On December 10, 2012, the Akron City Council passed a resolution calling for a constitutional amendment to establish federal and state government authority to regulate and limit political contributions and expenditures by corporations and similar entities, and for legislation to regulate and limit the impact, including through disclosure, of Citizens United.

      • On December 20, 2012, the Fremont City Council passed a resolution positing that corporations should not receive the same legal rights as natural persons, and that the most urgent action is needed to reverse Citizens United and close the door it opened to unlimited independent expenditures by corporations. The Council also called for a constitutional amendment to curtail corporate ability to make unlimited election donations.

     

    Oklahoma


    • State Resolutions
    • Local Resolutions - Passed

     

    Oregon


    • State Resolutions

      • HJM 9, introduced by Representative Phil Barnhart on January 10, 2011, urged Congress to pass a constitutional amendment relating to free speech rights of individuals and corporations. No action was taken by the Rules Committee before the regular session adjourned on June 30, 2011. No carryover from 2011 to 2012.

      • HJM5, introduced on January 14, 2013 by Representative Barnhart, with co-sponsorship by Dembrow and Gomberg, would urges passage of a constitutional amendment to reverse Citizens United and "restore the First Amendment and fair elections to the people."

      • HJM6, introduced on January 14, 2013, by Representative Clem, would reverse Citizens United and restrict Constitutional rights to natural persons.

      • SJM9, introduced on February 26, 2013, by Senator Dingfelder, with co-sponsorship by Bates, Dembrow, Boquist, Edwards, Anderson, and Hayward, urges Congress to propose an amendment to reverse Citizens United. It was referred to the Rules Committee on March 4.

    • Local Resolutions - Passed

      • On January, 12, 2012, the Portland City Council voted unanimously in favor of a resolution put for by Mayor Sam Adams, which declared that money is not speech and corporations are not people.

      • On March 7, 2012, the Coos Bay City Council passed a local resolution calling for state and federal legislators to support and pursue a constitutional amendment to end corporate personhood.

      • On April 12, 2012, the Yachats City Council passed (see page 1, item III) a resolution calling for a constitutional amendment to establish that corporations are not endowed with constitutional rights, nor is money speech.

      • On April 23, 2012, the City Council of the City of West Lin voted to pass a resolution in opposition to corporate personhood.

      • On May 15, 2012, the City Council of Newport passed a resolution supporting a constitutional amendment to abolish corporate personhood and the doctrine that money is not speech.

      • On June 26, 2012, the Baker City Council passed a resolution urging Oregon's Members of Congress to approve and Oregon's legislature to support a constitutional amendment giving Congress and the States the authority to regulate campaign contributions and expenditures for federal and state elections.

      • On July 19, 2012, the City of Port Orford passed a resolution calling upon their state and federal representatives to support and create a constitutional amendment to reaffirm and protect First Amendment rights rightly reserved for human persons.

      • On November 6, 2012, Ashlandians voted 80% to 20% in favor (see 15-116) when asked (Ibid), "Shall Ashland voters instruct Congress to amend U.S. Constitution to grant only natural persons constitutional rights and limit campaign spending?" This followed the March 6, 2012 passage of a resolution by the Ashland City Council that called for a constitutional amendmendment to establish federal and state authority to regulate campaign contributions and expenditures.

      • On November 6, 2012, Eugenians voted 74% to 26% in favor (page 7) when asked, "Shall Congress send to States constitutional amendment reversing negative impact of the Citizens United case and limit independent campaign spending?" This followed the February 15, 2012 passage of a resolution by the Eugene City Council establishing natural persons' ownership of consitutional rights and the urgent need to curb corporations' unlimited independent expenditures, and calling for a constitutional amendment that addresses such threats to representative government.

      • On November 6, 2012, voters in Lincoln County passed measure 21-146 with 77 percent support.

      • On February 7, 2012, the Corvallis City Council approved a ballot measure calling to overturn Citizens United and denounce corporate personhood. On November 6, 2012, it was passed by voters in Corvalis.

      • On April 2, 2013, the Beaverton City Council passed (see pgs. 1-2, "Visitor Comment Period," and pgs. 5-6, item 13080) a resolution calling for a constiutional amendment to establish that legislatures may regulate money that is raised and spent for political purposes.

     

    Pennsylvania


    • State Resolutions

      • SR 264, introduced on March 16, 2012 by Senator Jim Ferlo (D-38), expressed support for the Saving American Democracy Amendment. No action was taken by the State Government Committee before the session adjourned on November 30, 2012. No carryover from 2012 to 2013.

      • HR 653, introduced on March 9, 2010 by Representative Steve Santarsiero (D-31), expressed disagreement with Citizens United and called for a constitutional convention on the subject of election spending. No action was taken by the Intergovernmental Affairs Committee before the session adjourned. No carryover from 2010 to 2011.

      • HR293, introduced on May 6, 2013, by Representative Cohen, with co-sponsorship by DeLuca, Fabrizio, Frankel, Gibbons, Harhai, Harkins, Kortz II, Mundy, Matzie, Santarsiero, Boyle, Davis, Painter, and Schlossberg, would call a convention to amend the Constitution to reverse Citizens United and allow legislative regulation of election spending.

    • Local Resolutions - Passed

      • On January 1, 2010, the Lehman City Council passed a resolution condemning Citizens United and supporting a constitutional amendment to reverse the ruling.

      • On December 30, 2011, the Pittsburgh City Council passed a resolution calling for a constitutional amendment to abolish corporate personhood and return our elections back to the American people.

      • On February 14, 2012, the Town of Lancaster passed a resolution calling for a constitutional amendment to overturn Citizens United.

      • On May 2, 2012, Allegheny County passed a resolution calling for a constitutional amendment to overturn Citizens United.

      • On May 24, 2012, the Wilkes-Barre City Council voted 4-1 in favor of calling for to overturn Citizens United.

      • On June 21, 2012, the Philadelphia City Council passed a resolution calling for a constitutional amendment to overturn Citizens United.

      • On June 25, 2012, the Reading City Council approved a resolution urging lawmakers to amend the U.S. Constitution to abolish so-called corporate personhood.

     

    Puerto Rico


    • Territorial Resolutions
    • Local Resolutions - Passed

     

    Rhode Island


    • State Resolutions

      • H 6156, introduced on May 18, 2010 by Rep. Thomas Winfield, proposes that Congress pass a constitutional amendment to overturn Citizens United.

      • H 8186, introduced on May 27, 2010 by Rep. David Segel (D-2), applies to the Congress of the United States to call a constitutional convention.

      • H7899 was introduced by Speaker of the House Gordon Fox and passed on May 8, 2012. S2656 was introduced by State Senate President Teresa Paiva-Weed and passed on May 24, 2012. Governor Lincoln Chafee signed the joint resolutions on May 30, 2012. The companion bills respectfully urge "the Congress of the United States to pass and send to the states for ratification a constitutional amendment to effectively overturn the holding of Citizens United and its progeny and to permit the governments of the United States and the several states to regulate and restrict independent political expenditures by corporations and wealthy individuals."

      • H6051, introduced on April 30, 2013, by Representative Handy, with co-sponsorship by Ajello, Walsh, Marcello, and Blazejewski, would propose a constitutional amendment to reverse Citizens United and "recognize and define corporations as artificial entities established by law, and ... shall prevent money spent to influence elections to be construed as speech". Referred to committee for further study.

    • Local Resolutions - Passed

      • On June 7, 2012, the Providence City Council unanimously passed a resolution calling for a constitutional amendment to overturn the U.S. Supreme Court decision lifting the federal ban on corporate campaign spending.

      • On October 16, 2012, the East Providence City Council passed a resolution (see page 8, item D) calling for a constitutional amendment to reverse Citizens United and to restore constitutional rights and fair elections to the people.

     

    South Carolina


    • State Resolutions
    • Local Resolutions - Passed

     

    South Dakota


    • State Resolutions
    • Local Resolutions - Passed

     

    Tennessee


    • State Resolutions
    • Local Resolutions - Passed

     

    Texas


    • State Resolutions

      • SCR2, introduced on November 12, 2012, by Senator Ellis, with co-sponsorship from Luci and de Putte, would urge Congress to submit an amendment reversing Citizens United. The bill was referred to the State Affairs Committee on January 29, 2013. The counterpart in the House, HCR21, was introduced on December 5, 2012, by Representative Thompson.

      • HCR25, introduced on January 8, 2013 by Representative Burnam, would urge Congress to submit to the states an amendment reversing Citizens United. It was referred to committee on February 11, 2013.

      • HR230, introduced on January 28, 2013, by Representative Strama, would urge Congress to send a constitutional amendment to the states reversing Citizens United. It was referred to the Federalism and Fiscal Responsibility committee on February 18, 2013.

      • HJR94, introduced on February 21, 2013, by Representatives Burnam and Naishtat, would urge Congress to call a constitutional convention in order to reverse Citizens United. It was referred to committee on March 4, 2013.

    • Local Resolutions - Passed

      • On January 17, 2013, the Austin City Council passed a resolution calling for a constitutional amendment and/or other legislative actions to enture that money is not speech and spending for electoral or legislative influence shall be regulated. The Council also made a clear call, outside the amendment context, for regulating the use of funds by corporations and similar entities for electoral or legislative influence.

     

    Utah


    • State Resolutions

    • Local Resolutions - Passed

      • On October 8, 2013, the voters of Salt Lake City, by a margin of 89.6% to 10.4% approved an Opinion Question stating their support for an amendment making law that “Artificial entities are not persons and can be regulated” and that “Money is not speech and can be regulated.”

     

    Vermont


    • State Resolutions


      • JRS 11, introduced January 21, 2011 by Senator Virginia Lyons (D-Chittendon), passed in the Senate on April 12, 2012 and passed by the House on April 19, 2012. On behalf of the Vermont Legislature, JRS 11 "expresses its disagreement with the holdings of the U.S. Supreme Court in Buckley and in Citizens United that money is speech" and "urges Congress to consider the request of many Vermont cities and towns to propose a constitutional amendment for the state's consideration that provides that money is not speech and corporations are not persons under the U.S. Constitution and that also affirms the constitutional rights of natural persons."

      • JRS027, introduced on April 16, 2013 by Lyons and co-sponsored by Ashe, Baruth, Cummings, Fox, Hartwell, Pollina, and Rodgers, would request Congress to call a convention for proposing amendments related to overturning Citizens United to the Constitution.

    • Local Resolutions - Passed

      • On March 5, 2012, the Lincoln Town Meeting passed a resolution (page 110) calling for a constitutional amendment to provide that money is not speech, nor do corporations possess the constitutional rights of persons.

      • On March 6, 2012, in Albany, citizens voted in favor of a ballot that supports a constitutional amendment to overturn the Citizens United decision and clarify that corporations are not people.

      • On March 6, 2012, at a Town Hall meeting in Barnet, citizens passed a resolution condemning Citizens United and called for a constitutional amendment to reverse the decision.

      • On March 6, 2012, in Bolton, citizens nearly unanimously voted to pass a resolution calling for a constitutional amendment to overturn the Citizens United decision and clarify that corporations are not people.

      • On March 6, 2012, citizens at a town hall meeting in Brattleboro passed a resolution that condemns Citizens United and supports a constitutional amendment to reverse the Supreme Court ruling.

      • On March 6, 2012, in Brandon, citizens voted to pass a resolution calling for campaign finance reform and urging both the Vermont and US Congresses to support the same resolution. The resolution supports a constitutional amendment to overturn Citizens United.

      • On March 6, 2012, a town hall meeting in Bristol voted to support a resolution that calls for a constitutional amendment to reverse the Supreme Court's decision on Citizens United and clarify that corporations are not people protected by the First Amendment.

      • On March 6, 2012, citizens in Burlington passed a resolution that calls for a constitutional amendment to overturn the Citizens United decision and clarify that corporations are not people.

      • On March 6, 2012, in Calais, citizens at a town hall meeting voted to pass a resolution that condemns Citizens United and supports a constitutional amendment to reverse the ruling.

      • On March 6, 2012, a town hall meeting in Charlotte voted in favor of a resolution that calls for a constitutional amendment to overturn the Citizens United decision and clarify that corporations are not people.

      • On March 6, 2012, citizens in Chester passed a resolution that supports a constitutional amendment to reverse Citizens United.

      • On March 6, 2012, in Chittenden, citizens at a town hall meeting voted in favor of a resolution that condemns Citizens United and supports a constitutional amendment to overturn the ruling.

      • On March 6, 2012, a town hall meeting in Craftsbury voted to pass a resolution supporting a constitutional amendment to overturn the Citizens United decision and clarify that corporations are not people.

      • On March 6, 2012, citizens in a town hall meeting in East Montpelier passed a resolution that condemns Citizens United and calls for a constitutional amendment to reverse the ruling

      • On March 6, 2012, in Fayston, citizens passed a resolution that favors a constitutional amendment to overturn the Citizens United decision and clarify that corporations are not people protected by the First Amendment.

      • On March 6, 2012, a town hall meeting in Fletcher voted in favor of a resolution that supports a constitutional amendment to reverse the Supreme Court's decision on Citizens United.

      • On March 6, 2012, citizens at a town hall meeting in Granville voted to pass a resolution that condemns Citizens United and supports a constitutional amendment to reverse the decision.

      • On March 6, 2012, in Greensboro, citizens passed a resolution calling for a constitutional amendment to overturn the Citizens United decision and clarify that corporations are not people protected by the First Amendment.

      • On March 6, 2012, citizens in Hardwick unanimously voted in favor of a resolution that calls for a constitutional amendment to reverse Citizens United.

      • On March 6, 2012, citizens in Hartland voted in favor of a resolution that calls for a constitutional amendment to reverse Citizens United.

      • On March 6, 2012, a town hall meeting in Hartford voted to pass a resolution that condemns Citizens United and supports a constitutional amendment to reverse the ruling

      • On March 6, 2012, citizens at a town hall meeting in Hinesburg voted in favor of a resolution that condemns Citizens United and supports a constitutional amendment to overturn the decision.

      • On March 6, 2012, a town hall meeting in Jericho voted to pass a resolution supporting a constitutional amendment to overturn the Citizens United decision and clarify that corporations are not people protected by the First Amendment.

      • On March 6, 2012, citizens at a town hall meeting in Marlboro voted in favor of a resolution that supports a constitutional amendment to reverse Citizens United and clarifies that corporations are not people.

      • On March 6, 2012, in Marshfield, citizens passed a resolution that condemns Citizens United and supports a constitutional amendment that reverses the ruling.

      • On March 6, 2012, a town hall meeting in Middletown Springs voted in favor of a resolution that supports a constitutional amendment to reverse Citizens United and clarifies that corporations are not people protected by the First Amendment.

      • On March 6, 2012, citizens at a town hall meeting in Monkton voted to pass a resolution calling for a reversal of Citizens United.

      • On March 6, 2012, in Montgomery, a town hall meeting passed a resolution that condemns Citizens United and favors a constitutional amendment to reverse the ruling.

      • On March 6, 2012, a town hall meeting in Montpelier voted in favor of a resolution that supports a constitutional amendment to overturn the Citizens United decision and clarifies that corporations are not people.

      • On March 6, 2012, citizens in Moretown voted to pass a resolution that favors a constitutional amendment to reverse Citizens United.

      • On March 6, 2012, Mt. Holly citizens at a town hall meeting passed a resolution that condemns Citizens United and supports a constitutional amendment to reverse the ruling.

      • On March 6, 2012, a town hall meeting in Newbury voted in favor of a resolution that calls for a constitutional amendment to overturn the Citizens United decision and clarify that corporations are not people protected by the First Amendment.

      • On March 6, 2012, citizens at a town hall meeting in Newfane voted to pass a resolution that condemns Citizens United and favors a constitutional amendment to reverse the decision.

      • On March 6, 2012, in Norwich, citizens passed a resolution that supports a constitutional amendment to reverse the Citizens United decision and clarify that corporations are not people

      • On March 6, 2012, a town hall meeting in Peru voted to pass a resolution that condemns Citizens United and favors a constitutional amendment to overturn the ruling.

      • On March 6, 2012, citizens in Plainfield voted in favor of a resolution that calls for a constitutional amendment to reverse Citizens United and clarify that corporations are not people protected by the First Amendment.

      • On March 6, 2012, at a town hall meeting in Putney, on two ballots, citizens unanimously passed a resolution that condemns Citizens United and favors a constitutional amendment to overturn the ruling.

      • On March 6, 2012, in Randolph, citizens at a town hall meeting voted to pass a resolution that supports a constitutional amendment to overturn Citizens United.

      • On March 6, 2012, a town hall meeting in Richmond voted in favor of a resolution that condemns Citizens United and calls for a constitutional amendment to reverse the Supreme Court's ruling.

      • On March 6, 2012, at a town hall meeting in Ripton, citizens unanimously passed a resolution that supports a constitutional amendment to overturn Citizens United and clarifies that corporations are not people.

      • On March 6, 2012, in Rochester, citizens voted to pass a resolution that condemns Citizens United and favors a constitutional amendment to reverse the decision.

      • On March 6, 2012, citizens at a town hall meeting in Roxbury voted in favor of a resolution that supports a constitutional amendment to reverse Citizens United.

      • On March 6, 2012, a town hall meeting in Rutland City passed a resolution that favors a constitutional amendment to overturn the Citizens United decision and clarifies that corporations are not people protected by the First Amendment.

      • On March 6, 2012, in Rutland Town, citizens voted to pass a resolution condemning Citizens United and support a constitutional amendment to reverse the decision.

      • On March 6, 2012, citizens in Sharon voted in favor of a resolution that supports a constitutional amendment to reverse Citizens United.

      • On March 6, 2012, a town hall meeting in Shelburne passed a resolution that favors a constitutional amendment to overturn Citizens United and clarify that corporations are not people.

      • On March 6, 2012, citizens at a town hall meeting in Shrewsbury voted to pass a resolution that condemns Citizens United and favors a constitutional amendment to overturn the ruling.

      • On March 6, 2012, in South Burlington, citizens voted in favor of a resolution that supports a constitutional amendment to reverse the Supreme Court's ruling on Citizens United.

      • On March 6, 2012, a town hall meeting in Starksboro passed a resolution that favors a constitutional amendment to overturn the Citizens United decision and clarifies that corporations are not people protected by the First Amendment.

      • On March 6, 2012, citizens in Sudbury unanimously voted in favor of a resolution that condemns Citizens United and supports a constitutional amendment to reverse the decision.

      • On March 6, 2012, in Thetford Center, citizens at a town hall meeting voted to pass a resolution that favors a constitutional amendment to overturn Citizens United and clarify that corporations are not people.

      • On March 6, 2012, a town hall meeting in Tunbridge passed a resolution that condemns Citizens United and supports a constitutional amendment to reverse the ruling.

      • On March 6, 2012, citizens at a town hall meeting in Underhill voted in favor of a resolution that supports a constitutional amendment to overturn Citizens United.

      • On March 6, 2012, in Waitsfield, citizens passed a resolution that favors a constitutional amendmentto reverse Citizens United and clarifies that corporations are not people protected by the First Amendment.

      • On March 6, 2012, at a town hall meeting in Walden, citizens voted to pass a resolution that condemns Citizens United and favors a constitutional amendment to overturn the ruling.

      • On March 6, 2012, citizens in Waltham voted in favor of a resolution that supports a constitutional amendment to overturn Citizens United.

      • On March 6, 2012, a town hall meeting in Warren passed a resolution that condemns Citizens United and favors a constitutional amendment to reverse the decision.

      • On March 6, 2012, in West Haven, citizens voted to pass a resolution supporting a constitutional amendment to reverse the Citizens United decision and clarify that corporations are not people.

      • On March 6, 2012, the Williamstown Town Meeting passed a resolution (see page 3, "Art. 33") calling for a constitutional amendment to provide that money is not speech, nor are corporations people.

      • On March 6, 2012, citizens in Williston passed a resolution that condemns Citizens United and favors a constitutional amendment to reverse the decision.

      • On March 6, 2012, in Windsor, citizens at a town hall meeting voted to pass a resolution that supports a constitutional amendment to reverse the Citizens United decision and clarifies that corporations are not people protected by the First Amendment.

      • On March 6, 2012, a town hall meeting in Winooski voted in favor of a resolution that supports a constitutional amendment to overturn Citizens United.

      • On March 6, 2012, citizens in Woodbury passed a resolution that condemns Citizens United and favors a constitutional amendment to reverse the decision.

      • On March 6, 2012, at a town hall meeting in Woodstock, citizens supported a resolution that calls for a constitutional amendment to reverse Citizens United and clarify that corporations are not people.

      • On March 6, 2012, in Worcester, citizens voted to pass a resolution that supports a constitutional amendment to overturn Citizens United.

     

    Virgin Islands


    • Territorial Resolutions
    • Local Resolutions - Passed

     

    Virginia


    • State Resolutions

    • Local Resolutions - Passed

      • On June 4, 2012, the City Council of Charlottesville passed a resolution supporting a constitutional amendment to overturn the Citizens United ruling.

      • On September 18, 2012, the County Board of Arlington passed a resolution calling for a constitutional amendment to reverse the effects of the Citizens United decision

      • On September 10, 2013, the Alexandria City Council passed a resolution calling for a constitutional amendment to reverse Citizens United and related cases and restore constitutional rights and fair elections to the people, saying that the amendment should make clear that corporations are not entitled to the constitutional rights of natural persons, nor is money speech, and that regulating election-related spending is not synonomous with limiting political speech, thus federal and state governments may place limits on election contributions and expenditures.

      • On December 9, 2013, the City Council of Falls Church passed a resolution that resolved that "(i) the City Council of the City of Falls Church, Virginia calls upon the Virginia General Assembly and the United States Congress to support a constitutional amendment to reverse Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission, and related cases, and to restore constitutional rights and fair elections to the people, and (ii) that constitutional amendment should make clear (a) that corporations are not entitled to the constitutional protections or “rights” of natural persons; (b) that money is not speech; (c) that regulating election-related spending is not the same as limiting political speech; and (d) that Congress and the states may place limits on election contributions and expenditures.

     

    Washington


    • State Resolutions

      • SJM 8027, introduced on February 4, 2010 by Senator Ken Jacobsen, et al., urged the US Congress to propose and send to the states for ratification a constitutional amendment to provide that corporations are not people for purposes of electioneering communications or direct candidate contributions. It was not brought up for consideration in that session or the special session that convened that March.

      • SJM 8007, introduced on February 16, 2011 by State Senator Adam Kline, et al., urged the US Congress to propose and send to the states for ratification a constitutional amendment to provide that corproates are not people. It failed in the Senate Judiciary Committee two days later, and while it was later reintroduced, it was not brought back up for consideration in 2011 or 2012.

      • HJM 4001 was introduced on January 31, 2013, by Representative Pederson, with co-sponsorship by Hope, Carlyle, Goodman, Kagi, Sells, De Wege, Haigh, Springer, Lytton, Tharinger, Jinkins, Hunt, Cody, Morrell, Ormsby, Hudgins, petigrew, Moeller, Upthegrove, Reykdal, Fitzgibbon, Ryu, Liias, Roberts, Maxwell, Sawyer, Riccelli, Farrell, Pollet, Moscoso, Santos, and Hansen. It would request a constitutional amendment to overturn Citizens United, and passed the House on March 7, 2013; its counterpart in the Senate, SJM 8002, introduced on January 18, 2013 by Kline, Kohl-Welles, Billig, Rolfes, Nelson, Harper, Darneille, McAuliffe, Hargrove, and Frockt, was last reintroduced on June 13, 2013.

    • Local Resolutions - Passed

      • On March 5, 2012, the Port Townsend City Council passed (see pgs. 4-5, "RESOLUTION 12-010") a resolution calling for a constitutional amendment to abolish corporate personhood and reclaim our sovereign right to self-governance. The Council also supported public education on the democratic threats posed by corporate personhood, and encouraged lively discussion toward responding to such threats.

      • On April 23, 2012, the Jefferson County Board of County Commissioners passed a resolution calling for a constitutional amendment to abolish corporate personhood and reclaim our sovereign right to self-governance. The Council also supported public education on the democratic threats posed by corporate personhood, and encouraged lively discussion toward responding to such threats.

      • On May 14, 2012, the Seattle City Council unanimously passed a resolution condemning Citizens United and calling upon Congress to pass a constitutional amendment to overturn it

      • On June 4, 2012, the Bellingham City Council passed a resolution calling for a constitutional amendment to declare the corporations are not entitled to the constitutional rights of natural persons, and to ensure that corporate election expenditures are not constitutionally protected speech.

      • On June 4, 2012, the Langley City Council passed (see page 1, "New Business") a resolution calling for a constitutional amendment to reverse Citizens United by clarifying that corporations are not people, nor is money speech.

      • On July 23, 2012, the Island County commissioners approved a resolution that urges Congress to prepare and send to the states for ratification a constitutional amendment that reverses Citizens United.

      • On July 25, 2012, the Snohomish County Council passed (see page 14, item 6) a resolution calling for a constitutional amendment to clearly state that political contributions and expenditures are not constitutionally protected speech, and federal and state governments shall have the power both to regulate them and to require public disclosure of their sources.

      • On September 25, 2012, the Town Council of Coupeville passed a resolution calling for a US amendment to make clear that money and campaign contributions are not considered the same as free speech and corporations are not human beings with rights in the Constitution.

      • On September 11, 2012, the La Conner Town Council passed (see page 2, "Resolution - Amendment") a resolution calling for a constitutional amendment to abolish corporate personhood.

      • On October 2, 2012, the Olympia City Council passed a resolution calling for a constitutional amendment to provide that corporations are not human beings, nor are political contributions and expenditures constitutionally-protected speech, and that Congress and the states shall have the power to regulate such contributions and expenditures and to require public disclosure of their sources.

      • On December 18, 2012, the Tacoma City Council passed (see pgs. 3-4, "Public Comment," and page 7, "Resolution No. 38596") a resolution calling for a constitutional amendment to clearly state that corporations are not people and only people have constitutional rights, and political contributions and expenditures are not constitutionally protected speech.

      • On December 19, 2012, the Walla Walla City Council passed (see page 8, "Resolution No. 2012-97") a resolution calling for a constitutional amendment to clearly state that corporations are not people and only people have constitutional rights, political contributions and expenditures are not constitutionally protected speech, and federal and state governments shall have the power both to regulate them and to require public disclosure of their sources.

      • On January 28, 2013, the Sequim City Council passed (see pgs. 5-6, item 9) a resolution calling for a constitutional amendment to stipulate that no constitutional provisions shall limit the power of federal and state governments to regulate the speech of corporations and similar entities.

      • On February 19, 2013, the City Council of Kirkland passed a resolution stating that only human beings, not corporations, are persons under the United States Constitution for the purposes of regulation of elections; money is not speech, and the donation of money to a political campaign is not a form of constitutionally protected speech - therefore, regulating political contributions and spending money is not equivalent to limiting political speech; and the US Congress and Washington State Legislature are urged to take action, by constitutional amendment, to reverse Citizens United and correct the current unbridled ability of corporations to spend money during local and national elections.

      • On March 5, 2013, the Oak Harbor City Council passed (see page 4, "Resolution 13-02") a resolution calling for a constitutional amendment to clearly state that corporations are not people and only people have constitutional rights, political contributions and expenditures are not constitutionally protected speech, and federal and state governments shall have the power both to regulate them and to require public disclosure of their sources.

      • On November 4, 2013, the Anacortes City Council passed (see page 2, "Resolution 1875") a resolution calling for statutory or constitutional amendments to reverse Citizens United.

     

    West Virginia


    • State Resolutions

      • SR 24, introduced by Senator Herb Snyder, passed in the Senate on April 10, 2013. HR 9, introduced by Delegate Meshea Poore, passed in the House of Delegates on March 28, 2013. These companion resolutions call upon Congress to propose an amendment "to establish that corporations and unions are not entitled to the same rights and protections as natural persons under the Constitution" and that "such an amendment should assure the power of the federal, state and local governments to limit, regulate and require disclosure of sources of all money spent to influence elections."

    • Local Resolutions - Passed

      • On January 12, 2012, the Martinsburg City Council adopted a resolution calling for a constitutional amendment to reverse Citizens United and clarify that corporations are not people.

      • On January 26, 2012, the Jefferson County Commission passed a resolution that condemns Citizens United and supports a constitutional amendment to reverse the ruling.

      • On March 5, 2012, Charles Town passed a resolution calling on the US Congress to amend the constitution to state that only living persons are endowed with constitutional rights and that money is not the same as free speech.

      • On April 3, 2012, the Saint Albans City Council unanimously passed a resolution that condemns Citizens United and presses for a constitutional amendment to overturn the ruling.

     

    Wisconsin


    • State Resolutions

      • On February 29, 2012, Representatives Mark Pocan and Chris Taylor led Assembly and Senate colleagues in introducing AJR 121, which calls for a constitutional amendment "to establish that corporations are not entitled to constitutional rights of natural persons and that money is not speech." It failed to pass during the 2011-2012 legislative session.

      • On August 27, 2013, Representatives Chris Taylor, Katrina Shankland, and JoCasta Zamarripa led Assembly and Senate colleagues in introducing AJR 50, which calls for an advisory referendum on a constitutional amendment to establish that only human beings are entitled to constitutional rights and that money is not speech. It failed to pass during the 2013-2014 legislative session.

      • On February 13, 2014, Senator David Hansen led Senate and Assembly colleagues in introducing SJR 68, which calls for an advisory referendum on a constitutional amendment to establish that only human beings are entitled to constitutional rights and that money is not speech. It failed to pass during the 2013-2014 legislative session.

    • Local Resolutions - Passed

      • In April of 2011, 84% of voters in Madison, WI approved a resolution containing the following:

        Shall the City of Madison adopt the following reolution: RESOLVED, the City of Madison, Wisconsin, calls for reclaiming democracy from the corrupting effects of undue corporate influence by amending the United States Constitution to establish that:

          1.Only human beings, not corporations, are entitled to constitutional rights, and

          2.Money is not speech, and therefore regulating political contributions and spending is not equivalent to limiting political speech.

      • On April 5, 2011, Dane County voters approved the following resolution by 78%: "Should the US Constitution be amended to establish that regulating political contributions and spending is not equivalent to limiting freedom of speech, by stating that only human beings, not corporations, are entitled to constitutional rights?"

      • On April 3, 2012, Republican Party Primary voters in West Allis approved a resolution (70%) calling for a constitutional amendment to overturn Citizens United.

      • On May 7, 2012, the Westport Town Board passed a resolution calling for a constitutional amendment to establish that artificial entities such as corporations do not have constitutional rights, nor is money speech.

      • On June 4, 2012, the Monona City Council passed a resolution calling on Congress to pass a constitutional amendment to overturn the Citizens United decision.

      • On July 25, 2012, the Dunn County Board of Supervisors passed a resolution (see page 1, "Public Comments," and pgs. 8-9, "RESOLUTION NO. 50") calling for a constitutional amendment to provide that corporations are not entitled to the entirety of rights of human beings, specifically so that corporate election spending is no longer a form of constitutionally protected speech.

      • On November 6, 2012, voters in Eau Claire, WI supported with 71% of the vote a measure which stated: "Should the US Constitution be amended to establish that regulating political contributions and spending is not equivalent to limiting freedom of speech, by stating that only human beings, not corporations, unions, or PACs, are entitled to constitutional rights?"

      • On April 2, 2013, the citizens of Chippewa County voted 68% to 32% in favor (see page 9, "County Referendum") when asked, "Should the United States Constitution be amended to state that only human beings, not corporations, unions or political action committees, are entitled to constitutional rights and that government regulation of political contributions and spending by corporations, unions or political action committees is therefore not equivalent to limiting freedom of speech?"

      • On April 2, 2013, the citizens of Fort Atkinson voted 77% to 23% in favor of (see "CITY OF FORT ATKINSON MUNICIPAL REFERENDUM") adopting the following resolution: "Resolved, that “We the People” of the City of Fort Atkinson, Wisconsin, seek to reclaim democracy from the expansion of corporate personhood rights and the corrupting influence of unregulated political contributions and spending. We stand with the Move to Amend campaign and communities across the country to support passage of an amendment to the United States Constitution stating: 1. Only human beings – not corporations, limited liability companies, unions, non-profit organizations, or similar associations and corporate entities – are endowed with constitutional rights, and 2. Money is not speech, and therefore regulating political contributions and spending is not equivalent to limiting political speech. BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED, that we hereby instruct our state and federal representatives to enact resolutions and legislation to advance this effort."

      • On April 2, 2013, the citizens of Whitewater voted 83% to 17% in favor of (see "CITY OF WHITEWATER MUNICIPAL REFERENDUM") adopting the following resolution (see page 2, "Referendum"): "Resolved, that 'We the People' of the City of Whitewater (Fort Atkinson), Wisconsin, seek to reclaim democracy from the expansion of corporate personhood rights and the corrupting influence of unregulated political contributions and spending. We stand with the Move to Amend campaign and communities across the country to support passage of an amendment to the United States Constitution stating: 1. Only human beings - not corporations, limited liability companies, unions, nonprofit organizations or similar associations and corporate entities - are endowed with constitutional rights, and, 2. Money is not speech, and therefore, regulating political contributions and spending is not equivalent to limiting political speech. Be it further resolved, that we hereby instruct our state and federal representatives to enact resolutions and legislation to advance this effort."

      • On June 20, 2013, the Douglas County Board of Supervisors passed a resolution (see pgs. 17-18) calling for a constitutional amendment to overturn Citizens United and to ensure constitutional rights and fair elections to the people.

      • On July 8, 2013, the Exeter Board of Supervisors passed (see "Old Business") a resolution calling for a constitutional amendment to establish that artificial entities such as corporations do not have constitutional rights, nor is money speech.

      • On July 9, 2013, the Jefferson County Board passed (see page 62, "County Clerk" and "The floor," and pgs. 68-69, "Resolution Nos. 2013-43 and 2013-44") a resolution calling for a constitutional amendment to state that corporations and similar entities do not have constitutional rights, nor is money speech. (See pgs. 10-12 for more information.)

      • On July 10, 2013, Town of Koshkonong town board passed resolution, with an 80% approval, calling for a constitutional amendment to end corporate personhood and declare that money is not speech.

      • On July 16, 2013, Town of Oakland Town Board unanimously approved resolution calling for a constitutional amendment to end corporate personhood and declare that money is not speech.

      • On August 5, 2013, the Kenosha City Council passed (see page 6, "Resolution 113-13") a resolution calling for a constitutional amendment to establish that corporations and similar entities do not have constitutional rights, nor is money speech.

      • On August 12, 2013, the Town of Sumner Town Board unanimously approved resolution calling for a constitutional amendment to end corporate personhood and declare that money is not speech.

      • On August 12, 2013, the Town of Watertown Town Board unanimously approved resolution calling for a constitutional amendment to end corporate personhood and declare that money is not speech.

      • On August 20, 2013, Kenosha County Board voted 19-4 to approve resolution calling for a constitutional amendment to end corporate personhood and declare that money is not speech.

      • On September 5, 2013, Town of Jefferson Town Board voted 4-1 to approve resolution calling for a constitutional amendment to end corporate personhood and declare that money is not speech.

      • On September 5, 2013, the Town of Farmington Town Board unanimously approved resolution calling for a constitutional amendment to end corporate personhood and declare that money is not speech.

      • On September 9, 2013, the Spring Valley Town Board of Supervisors passed a resolution calling for a constitutional amendment to state that corporations and similar entities do not have constitutional rights, nor is money speech.

      • On September 17, 2013, the Town of Richmond Town Board unanimously approved resolution calling for a constitutional amendment to end corporate personhood and declare that money is not speech.

      • On November 11, 2013, the Cross Plains Town Board of Supervisors passed a resolution calling for a constitutional amendment to permit federal and state governments to regulate the role of money in elections.

      • On December 2, 2013, the Avon Town Board of Supervisors passed a resolution calling for a constitutional amendment to state that corporations and similar entities do not have constitutional rights, nor is money speech.

      • On December 16, 2013, the Porter Town Board of Supervisors passed a resolution calling for a constitutional amendment to state that corporations and similar entities do not have constitutional rights, nor is money speech.

      • On January 14, 2014, the Plymouth Town Board of Supervisors (Rock County) passed (see item 8.1) a resolution calling for a constitutional amendment to establish that corporations and similar entities are not endowed with constitutional rights, nor is money speech.

      • On February 10, 2014, the Newark Town Board of Supervisors passed a resolution calling for a constitutional amendment to state that corporations and similar entities do not have constitutional rights, nor is money speech.

      • On April 1, 2014, the citizens of Belleville voted 86% to 14% in favor of adopting the following resolution: "RESOLVED, the Village of Belleville, Wisconsin, calls for reclaiming democracy from the corrupting effects of undue corporate influence by amending the United States Constitution to establish that: 1. Only human beings, not corporations, are entitled to constitutional rights, and 2. Money is not speech, and therefore regulating political contributions and spending is not equivalent to limiting political speech."

      • On April 1, 2014, the citizens of DeForest voted 70% to 30% in favor of calling for a constitutional amendment to affirm that corporations and other legal entities do not have constitutional rights, and 69% to 31% in favor of calling for a constitutional amendment to affirm that money is not speech.

      • On April 1, 2014, the citizens of Delavan voted 76% to 24% in favor of (see page 9, "C Delavan Referendum") adopting the following resolution: "RESOLVED, the City of Delavan, Wisconsin, calls for reclaiming democracy from the corrupting effects of undue corporate influence by amending the United States Constitution to establish that: 1. Only human beings, not corporations, unions, nonprofit organizations nor similar associations are entitled to constitutional rights, and 2. Money is not speech, and therefore regulating political contributions and spending is not equivalent to limiting political speech. BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED, that we hereby instruct our state and federal representatives to enact resolutions and legislation to advance this effort."

      • On April 1, 2014, the citizens of Edgerton voted 87% in favor of adopting the following resolution (see pgs. 1-4, "Referendum"): "RESOLVED, that "We the People" of the City of Edgerton, Wisconsin, seek to reclaim democracy from the expansion of corporate personhood rights and the corrupting influence of unregulated political contributions and spending. We stand with the Move to Amend campaign and communities across the country to support passage of an amendment to the United States Constitution stating: 1. Only human beings - not corporations, unions, non-profits, or similar associations - are endowed with constitutional rights, and 2. Money is not speech, and therefore regulating political contributions and spending is not equivalent to limiting political speech."

      • On April 1, 2014, the citizens of Elkhorn voted 69% to 31% in favor of (see page 9, "C Elkhorn Referendum") a resolution calling for a constitutional amendment to overturn Citizens United.

      • On April 1, 2014, the citizens of Lake Mills voted 73% to 27% in favor (see "City of Lake Mills Move Amend Referendum") when asked (see page 6, "City of Lake Mills," item 2), "Should the United States Constitution be amended to establish that regulating political contributions and spending is not equivalent to limiting freedom of speech, and that only human beings, and not corporations or similar associations, are entitled to Constitutional rights?" This followed the September 10, 2013 passage of (see page 1, item 10c) a resolution by the Lake Mills Town Board of Supervisors calling for a constitutional amendment to establish that only human beings are endowed with constitutional rights and money is not speech.

      • On April 1, 2014, the citizens of Shorewood voted 76% to 24% in favor of (see page 2, "Village Referendum") adopting the following resolution: "RESOLVED, the Village of [Shorewood], Wisconsin, calls for reclaiming democracy from the corrupting effects of undue corporate influence by amending the United States Constitution to establish that: 1. Only human beings, not corporations, are entitled to constitutional rights, and 2. Money is not speech, and therefore regulating political contributions and spending is not equivalent to limiting political speech. BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED, that we hereby instruct our state and federal representatives to enact resolutions and legislation to advance this effort."

      • On April 1, 2014, the citizens of Waterloo voted 61% to 39% in favor (see "Town of Waterlook Move to Amend Referendum") when asked (see page 6, "Town of Waterloo"), "Should the United States Constitution be amended to establish that regulating political contributions and spending is not equivalent to limiting freedom of speech, and that only human beings, and not corporations or similar associations, are entitled to Constitutional rights?"

      • On April 1, 2014, the citizens of Waukesha voted 69% in favor of adopting the following resolution: "RESOLVED, the City of Waukehsa, Wisconsin, calls for reclaiming democracy from the corrupting effects of undue corporate influence by amending the United States Constitution to establish that: 1. Only human beings, not corporations, unions, nonprofit organizations nor similar associations are entitled to constitutional rights, and 2. Money is not speech, and therefore regulating political contributions and spending is not equivalent to limiting political speech. BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED, that we hereby instruct our state and federal representatives to enact resolutions and legislation to advance this effort."

      • On April 1, 2014, the citizens of Waunakee voted 79% to 21% in favor of (see "Referendum (MOVE to Amend)") adopting the following resolution (see "Referendum," item 2"): "Resolved, that “We the People” of the Village of Waunakee, Wisconsin, seek to reclaim democracy from the expansion of corporate personhood rights and the corrupting influence of unregulated political contributions and spending. We stand with the Move to Amend campaign and communities across the country to support passage of an amendment to the United States Constitution stating: 1. Only human beings – not corporations, unions, non-profits or similar associations – are endowed with constitutional rights, and 2. Money is not speech, and therefore regulating political contributions and spending is not equivalent to limiting political speech. BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED, that we hereby instruct our state and federal representatives to enact resolutions and legislation to advance this effort."

      • On April 1, 2014, the citizens of Wauwatosa voted 64% to 36% in favor of (see pgs. 5-6, "MUNICIPAL Referendum," especially page 5, "TOTALS") adopting the following resolution: "RESOLVED, the City of Wauwatosa, Wisconsin, calls for reclaiming democracy from the corrupting effects of undue corporate influence by amending the United States Constitution to establish that: 1. Only human beings, not corporations, are entitled to constitutional rights, and 2. Money is not speech, and therefore regulating political contributions and spending is not equivalent to limiting political speech. BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED that we hereby instruct our state and federal representatives to enact resolutions and legislation to advance this effort."

      • On April 1, 2014, the citizens of Whitefish Bay voted 65% to 35% in favor of adopting the following resolution: "RESOLVED, the Village of Whitefish Bay, Wisconsin, calls for reclaiming democracy from the corrupting effects of undue corporate influence by amending the United States Constitution to establish that: 1. Only human beings, not corporations, are entitled to constitutional rights, and 2. Money is not speech, and therefore regulating political contributions and spending is not equivalent to limiting political speech. BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED, that we hereby instruct our state and federal representatives to enact resolutions and legislation to advance this effort."

      • On April 1, 2014, the citizens of Windsor voted 70% to 30% in favor of calling for a constitutional amendment to affirm that corporations and other legal entities do not have constitutional rights, and 71% to 29% in favor of calling for a constitutional amendment to affirm that money is not speech.

      • On July 7, 2014, the Janesville Town Board of Supervisors passed a resolution calling for a constitutional amendment to state that corporations and similar entities are not endowed with constitutional rights, nor is money speech.

     

    Wyoming


    • State Resolutions
    • Local Resolutions - Passed



    Adding Resolutions to the Endorsers List



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